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I. Pausanias Mardonium apud Plataeas devincit eaque victoria elatus maiora concupiscit.
(1,1) Pausanias Lacedaemonius magnus homo, sed varius in omni genere vitae fuit: (1,2) nam ut virtutibus eluxit, sic vitiis est obrutus. huius illustrissimum est proelium apud Plataeas. namque illo duce Mardonius, satrapes regius, natione Medus, regis gener, in primis omnium Persarum et manu fortis et consilii plenus, cum ducentis milibus peditum, quos viritim legerat, et viginti milibus equitum haud ita magna manu Graeciae fugitatus dux proelio. (1,3) qua victoria elatus plurima miscere coepit et maiora concupiscere. sed primum in eo est reprehensus, quod ex praeda tripodem aureum Delphis posuisset epigrammate inscripto, in quo haec erat sententia: suo ductu barbaros apud Plataeas esse deletos eiusque victoriae ergo Apollini donum dedisse. (1,4) hos versus Lacedaemonii exsculpserunt neque aliud scripserunt quam nomina earum civitatum, quarum auxilio Persae erant victi.
1. The Lacedaemonian Pausanias was an important man, but he was unequal in every aspect of life. For just as it shone through excellent qualities, so it is obscured by faults. His most famous act is the Battle of Plataiai. In it, under his leadership, the Mede Mardonios, the governor and son-in-law of the king and above all the Persians, was honored for his personal bravery and cleverness, with an army of 200,000 foot soldiers, selected man for man, and 20,000 horsemen by a not very large crowd of Greeks put to flight and the general himself fell in this battle. Proud of this victory, he began to overturn the old orders in many respects and to raise them higher. First of all, however, he reproached himself for having erected a golden tripod at Delphi from the booty, with an inscription that said that under his leadership the barbarians at Plataiai had been destroyed and, for the sake of this victory, he had given it to Apollo Consecration offered. The Lacedaemonians scratched these lines and wrote nothing on them but the names of the states with whose help the Persians had been defeated.
- Persian camp of Mardonios
- First position of the Greeks (cavalry battles)
- Persian troop formation
- Second position of the Greeks (The various changes of position of the Greeks are determined by security considerations and disputes of the generals)
- Third position of the Greeks
- The Athenians on the island (Nesos)
- The Spartan camp near Eritrai
- Position of the Persians after their hasty attack
- The Greek auxiliary peoples of the Persians (especially Thebans) xcxc
|The three recordings were kindly sent to us by Prof. Dr. Left to Leo Bazant-Hegemark |
II. Byzantio potituscum Xerxe agit de Graecia Persis subigenda
(2,1) Post id proelium eundem Pausaniam cum classe communi Cyprum atque Hellespontum miserunt, ut ex iis regionibus barbarorum praesidia depelleret. (2,2) pari felicitate in ea re usus elatius se gerere coepit maioresque appetere res. nam cum Byzantio expugnato cepisset complures Persarum nobiles atque in his nonnullos regis propinquos, hos clam Xerxi remisit, simulans ex vinclis publicis effugisse, et cum his Gongylum Eretriensem, qui litteras regi redderet, in quibus haec produisse scripta Thu ) 'Pausanias, dux Spartae, quos Byzanti ceperat, postquam propinquos tuos cognovit, tibi muneri misit seque tecum affinitate coniungi cupit: quare, si tibi videtur, des ei filiam tuam nuptum. (2,4) id si feceris, et Spartam et ceteram Graeciam sub tuam potestatem se adiuvante [te] redacturum pollicetur. his de rebus si quid geri volueris, certum hominem ad eum mittas face, cum quo colloquatur. ' (2.5) rex tot hominum salute tam sibi necessariorum magnopere gavisus confestim cum epistula Artabazum ad Pausaniam mittit, in qua eum collaudat; petit, ne cui rei parcat ad ea efficienda, quae pollicetur: si perfecerit, nullius rei a se repulsam laturum. (2,6) Huius Pausanias voluntate cognita alacrior ad rem gerendam factus in suspicionem cecidit Lacedaemoniorum. in quo facto domum revocatus, accusatus capitis graduation, multatur tamen pecunia, quam ob causam ad classem remissus non est.
2. After this battle they again sent the Pausanias with the common fleet to Cyprus and the Hellespont to drive the barbarian garrisons out of these areas (477). Favored here by the same luck, he began to behave more haughty and to strive for greater power. Since he had captured several distinguished Persians, including some relatives of the king, during the conquest of Byzantium, he secretly sent them back to Xerxes, while pretending that they had escaped from custody, with them the Gongylos from Eretria, who was the king's was supposed to bring a letter in which, according to Thucydides' report, the following was written: Pausanias, the general of the Spartans, sends you the prisoners of Byzantium, after he has learned that they are your relatives, as a gift and wishes them to be related to you to kick. So, if you think so, give him your daughter to be his wife. If you do, he promises you, with his help, to bring Sparta and the rest of Greece under your control. If you wish to see something of this carried out, well, send him a reliable man with whom he can talk. The king, who was delighted at the salvation of so many men so close to him, immediately sent Artabazos to Pausanias with a letter in which he praised him and in which he asked him not to save anything in order to get his promises to work put. Once he has done it, he will not leave any of his wishes unfulfilled. Knowing the king's inclination, Pausanias only grew more eager to carry out the matter, but was suspected by the Lacedaemonians. In the meantime, he was ordered to go home, accused, but not to death, but still sentenced to a fine; therefore he was not sent back to the fleet.
III. Iniussu magistratuum ad exercitum reversus consilia sua ipse aperit.
(3,1) At illegal post non multo sua sponte ad exercitum rediit et ibi non callida, sed dementi ratione cogitata patefecit: non enim mores patrios solum, sed etiam cultum vestitumque mutavit. (3.2) apparatus regio utebatur, veste Medica; satellites Medi et Aegyptii sequebantur; epulabatur more Persarum luxuriosius, quam qui aderant perpeti possent; (3,3) aditum petentibus conveniundi non dabat, superbe respondebat, crudeliter imperabat. Spartame redire nolebat; Colonas, qui locus in agro Troade est, se contulerat; ibi consilia cum patriae tum sibi inimica capiebat. (3,4) id postquam Lacedaemonii rescierunt, legatos cum clava ad eum miserunt, in qua more illorum erat scriptum: nisi domum reverteretur, se capitis eum damnaturos. (3,5) hoc nuntio commotus, sperans se etiam tum pecunia et potentia instans periculum posse depellere, domum rediit. huc ut venit, from ephoris in vincla publica est coniectus: licet enim legibus eorum cuivis ephoro hoc facere regi. hinc tamen se expedivit, neque eo magis carebat suspicione: nam opinio manebat eum cum rege habere societatem. (3,6) est genus quoddam hominum, quod Hilotae vocatur, quorum magna multitudo agros Lacedaemoniorum colit servorumque munere fungitur. hos quoque sollicitare spe libertatis existimabatur. (3,7) sed quod harum rerum nullum erat apertum crimen, quo argui posset, non putabant de tali tamque claro viro suspicionibus oportere iudicari et exspectandum, dum se ipsa res aperiret.
3. Nevertheless, he did not return to the army of his own accord long afterwards and came forward with his plans in a way that was by no means cunning, but rather foolish. For he changed not only the patriotic customs, but also the way of life and clothing; He surrounded himself with royal splendor and Median robes, was accompanied by Median and Egyptian satellites, according to Persian custom he dined more lavishly than his surroundings could endure, did not allow those who sought it to speak to him, and gave proud and cruel judgments Commands. He did not want to return to Sparta, but had gone to the town of Kolonai in the area of Troy, where he was making plans no less for the fatherland than for himself. When the Lacedaemonians learned of this, they sent him messengers with a staff, on which it was written in the usual way: If he does not return home, he will be sentenced to death. In response to this message in, he returned to his homeland, hoping that with his money and his influence he would still be able to avert the impending danger, but as soon as he got there, he was thrown by the ephors into the state prison. Because according to the Spartan laws every ephor can do this to the king. However, he helped himself to freedom again, but remained none the less under suspicion, since the view was retained that he was in contact with the king. There is a group of people called helots, a large number of whom cultivate the Lacedaemonian lands and perform slave services. These too, it was suspected, he lulled off with the promise of freedom. But since there was no open accusation in these matters that could have been accused of him, it was believed that one should not judge such an important and famous man on grounds of suspicion, but rather wait until the matter came to light of its own accord.
IV. Proditionis coarguitur
(4,1) Interim Argilius quidam adulescentulus, quem puerum Pausanias amore venerio dilexerat, cum epistulam ab eo ad Artabazum accepisset eique in suspicionem venisset aliquid in ea de se esse scriptum, quod nemo eorum redisset, qui super tali causa eodeminc missant epistulae laxavit signoque detracto cognovit, si pertulisset, sibi esse pereundum. (4,2) erant in eadem epistula quae ad ea pertinebant, quae inter regem Pausaniamque convenerant. hasali litteras ephoris tradidit. (4,3) non est praetereunda gravitas Lacedaemoniorum hoc loco. nam ne huius quidem indicio impulsi sunt ut Pausaniam comprehenderent, neque prius vim adhibendam putaverunt, quam se ipse indicasset. itaque huic indici, quid fieri vellent, praeceperunt. (4,4) fanum Neptuni est Taenari, quod violari nefas putant Graeci. eo illegal index confugit in araque consedit. hanc iuxta locum fecerunt sub terra, ex quo posset audiri, si quis quid loqueretur cum Argilio. huc ex ephoris quidam descenderunt. (4,5) Pausanias, ut audivit Argilium confugisse in aram, perturbatus venit eo. quem cum supplicem dei videret in ara sedentem, quaerit, causae quid sit tam repentini consilii. huic seine, quid ex litteris comperisset, aperitif (4,6) modo magis Pausanias perturbatus orare coepit, ne enuntiaret nec se meritum de illo optime proderet: quod si eam veniam sibi dedisset tantisque implicatum rebus sublevasset, magno ei praemio futurum.
4. Meanwhile a young person from Argilus, whom Pausanias had loved immoderately as a boy, received a letter from him to Artabazos, and since he suspected something might be written about him in it, because no one had yet been in such a letter When the matter had returned to the ambassador, he loosened the string of the letter, removed the seal and read that death awaited him when he brought him to the place of his destiny. At the same time there were things in the letter relating to the agreement between the king and Pausanias. Now he gave this letter to the ephors. The prudence of the Lacedaemonians should not be left unmentioned on this occasion: for not even this advertisement could induce them to seize the person of Pausanias, but rather believed that they should not use force until he betrayed himself. Therefore, they distributed instructions to the named show-off as to what should be done. At Tainaron there is a temple of Poseidon, which the Greeks consider to be a sacrilege to injure. There the show-off fled and sat down at the altar. Next to it they installed an underground room from which one could hear if someone was talking to the Argilians, and behind it some of the ephors rose. As soon as Pausanias hears that the Argilians have fled to the altar, he comes there in dismay and, when he sees him sitting at the altar as a protector of God, asks him about the cause of this sudden decision. The latter reveals to him what he has seen from the letter. Now even more dismayed, Pausanias begs: He shouldn't let anything be known and not betray him, who has done so much for him. If he grant him this and support him in his involvement in these important matters, it should earn him rich rewards.
V. Fame enectus misere perit.
(5,1) His rebus ephori cognitis satius putarunt in urbe eum comprehendi. quo cum essent profecti et Pausanias placato Argilio, ut putabat, Lacedaemonem reverteretur, in itinere, cum iam in eo esset ut comprehenderetur, ex vultu cuiusdam ephori, qui eum admoneri cupiebat, insidias sibi fieri intellexit. (5,2) itaque paucis ante gradibus, quam qui eum sequebantur, in aedem Minervae, quae Chalcioicos vocatur, confugit. hinc ne exire posset, statim ephori valvas eius aedis obstruxerunt tectumque sunt demoliti, quo celerius sub divo interiret. (5,3) dicitur eo tempore matrem Pausaniae vixisse eamque iam magno natu, postquam de scelere filii comperit, in primis ad filium claudendum lapidem ad introitum aedis attulisse. (5.4) sic Pausanias magnam belli gloriam turpi morte maculavit. hic cum semianimis de templo elatus esset, confestim animam efflavit. (5,5) cuius mortui corpus cum eodem nonnulli dicerent inferri oportere, quo ii qui ad supplicium essent dati, displicuit pluribus, et procul ab eo loco infoderunt, quo erat mortuus. inde posterius Delphici responso erutus atque eodem loco sepultus, ubi vitam posuerat.
5. After hearing the ephors, they thought it better to seize him in the city. So they went there and Pausanias also returned to Lacedaemon, believing that he had calmed the Argilians. On the way, however, when the time had come to arrest him, he noticed from the expression of an ephor who wanted to warn him that he was being pursued. Therefore he fled his persecutors a few steps ahead to the sanctuary of Athena, nicknamed Chalkioikos. In order to prevent his escape from there, the ephors immediately had the doors of the temple barricaded and the roof covered so that he would die more quickly in the open air. It is said that Pausanias's mother was still alive at that time and, in old age, having been informed of the crimes of her son, brought among the first a stone to wall up her son in the temple. So Pausanias tainted his war fame with a disgraceful ending. When he was carried out of the temple, half dead, he immediately exhaled his life (473). The corpse of the dead, some claimed, had to be taken to wherever those condemned to death were thrown; most, however, were against it and he was scratched some distance from the place where he had died. From there he was later excavated again by order of the Delphic god and buried in the same place where he had ended his life.
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