What does Gyet Manmanw Muetter mean


The Goatstones are a Four Poster Stone Circle near Ravensheugh Crags in Northumberland, England. There are four menhirs that mark the corners of a square. The stone setting dates from the Bronze Age.

The name Goatstones (Goat stones) can also be from Gyet Stanes derived, which means in Old English "stones by the wayside". You're standing near an old road north of Hexham.

Four Poster Stones are remarkable because of their only regionally limited distribution. They belong to a class of monuments that, as the name suggests, consists of at least four menhirs that form the corners of a square or rectangle, so that the term circle (English circle) seems a bit absurd. Excavations have shown, however, that the square stone settings are remnants of former stone circles. If more than four stones are preserved, the four corner stones protrude in size. Four Poster Stone Circles are found mostly in Scotland, especially Perthshire. The Goatstones are one of the few examples in the British Isles outside of Scotland. In Northumberland is located with the Three Kings, around six kilometers northwest of the Roman camp Bremenium (near Rochester (Northumberland)), another such monument, of which only three stones remain, the fourth has fallen over. Another example outside of Scotland is the stones at Old Radnor in Powys, Wales and Circles in Ireland.

The Goatstones are quite low, none are taller than 70 centimeters. The distances between them are 4.6 and 4.4 meters. The southern stone tilted at a shallow angle, probably due to its weight. Aubrey Burl suspects that this is the rectangle of the Goatstones found a stone circle with a diameter of 5.2 meters, in the center of which was a cairn. He concludes this from his excavations at the Three Kings, which were surrounded by a stone circle 4.4 meters in diameter, at the center of which was a severely disturbed cairn.[1] No professional excavation has yet been carried out at the Goatstones. Since 1930, however, non-experts have dug several times in the center of the square, but there are no reports of finds. In 1970 traces of unskilled excavations were also discovered on the periphery of the stones, which makes an archaeological uncovering and investigation of undisturbed layers seem impossible.

The surface of the eastern stone is covered with bowls. They are badly weathered, which indicates that the bowls are very old. Fourteen of those in English Cups called shells are recognizable, although originally there should have been 16.[2] There could also have been individual cup markings on the top of the other stones, but they cannot be clearly identified due to weathering. Other stones with bowls can also be found in the vicinity of the Goatstones,[3] those at Fontburn are important.[4]

The stone settings, which date from the oldest Bronze Age to the Early Iron Age, have been viewed from ancient times as burial places or memorials for deceased princes or kings, which is where the name comes from Three Kings suggests. In the latter case, the population suspects that they were Danish kings who died in a battle.[5] Not to be confused with the Bronze Age Four Poster Stone Circles, often called Four-posters for short, with later square structures, of which mostly only the post holes are found. These usually cover areas of only two to four square meters. Theories suggest that the posts anchored in these holes could have served as cornerstones for granaries or haystacks, or that they were parts of beehives, chicken coops, sheds, watchtowers, workshops, or platforms for laying out the dead. These structures are often found in hillforts and on prehistoric farms.


  • Richard Cavensdish: Prehistoric England. English Tourist Board, London 1983
  • Aubrey Burl: Four-posters: Bronze Age stone circles of Western Europe. B.A.R., Oxford 1988, pp. 66-67
  • Barry M. Marsden: Discovering regional archeology: North-Eastern England. 1971, p. 12

Individual evidence

  1. ↑ Aubrey Burl: A guide to the stone circles of Britain, Ireland and Brittany. Yale University Press, 2nd Edition, 2005, p. 72
  2. ↑ Aubrey Burl: A guide to the stone circles of Britain, Ireland and Brittany. Yale University Press, 2nd Edition, 2005, p. 71
  3. ↑ Aron Mazel, George Nash and Clive Waddington: Art as metaphor: the prehistoric rock-art of Britain. Archaeopress, Oxford 2008, p. 239
  4. ^ Fontburn b Northumberland Rock Art, Web Access to the Beckensall Archive
  5. ↑ Aubrey Burl: A guide to the stone circles of Britain, Ireland and Brittany. Yale University Press, 2nd Edition, 2005, p. 72

Web links

55.067197-2.26784 Coordinates: 55 ° 4 ′ 2 ″ N, 2 ° 16 ′ 4 ″ W.