Who wrote Cinderella and Rockefeller


I. Content[1]

A rich widower has one daughters from his first marriage and two daughters from his second marriage. The stepdaughters send the girl into the kitchen and bully her with nonsensical work. She has to sleep in the ashes next to the stove and is therefore called Cinderella.

The father travels to a fair, the stepdaughters want expensive plaster, Cinderella a rice. She planted this on her mother's grave and doused it with her tears. A tree grows out of it, under which Cinderella cries and prays every day. A white bird sits on it and throws down what she wants.

The king gives his son a three-day feast at which he is supposed to watch the bride. The stepsisters go and let Cinderella do their hair and fix their clothes. Cinderella asks the stepmother's permission to go to the festival. She allows it if the girl has picked a bowl of lentils from the ashes within two hours. Cinderella calls the birds that did the job in an hour. The stepmother still does not give permission and has her read two bowls in an hour. And again the birds help. They do the job in half an hour. Again the stepmother refuses because Cinderella has nothing to wear.

Cinderella wants a beautiful dress from the tree and goes to the festival. Nobody recognizes them. The prince dances with her all evening. Then she escapes and escapes into the pigeon house. The prince follows her and, with the help of Cinderella's father, destroys the dovecote, but the girl is already in the ashes again. The next day she goes dancing again and takes refuge in a pear tree that her father felled. They don't catch them here either.

On the third evening, Cinderella's left slipper got stuck on the stairs, which were smeared with pitch. The next day he goes to his father, shows the shoe and says he wants to marry whichever shoe fits. The older stepsister chops off her toe, puts on the shoe and rides with the prince towards the castle. The pigeons on the sapling by the grave alert him that there is blood in the shoe. He's bringing the oldest back. The younger one feels the same, only that she has chopped off her heel. But the shoe fits Cinderella and the doves confirm that she is the right bride. The stepsisters attend the wedding. The pigeons peck one eye on the way there and the other on the way back.

II. Versions

1. After Grimm 1812

the dying mother says that the girl should plant the tree, so the trip to mass and the souvenirs are missing. The stepdaughters are expressly invited to the party. They mockingly ask if Cinderella wants to go too, and refuse to take her with them because they don't want to make a fool of themselves with her. The sisters give her lenses to read, without any time information. This is not pointless work here, because the bad lenses have to be picked out. Two white doves come by themselves and ask if they can help. They recommend the girl to climb into the pigeon house and watch the party.

The next morning, the stepsisters are annoyed that they have nothing to scold and want to make Cinderella jealous by telling about the ball. Cinderella has been watching and already knows. In anger, they tear down the pigeon house.

In the evening the girl has to pick out sweet peas. The pigeons help again and recommend that she ask for nice clothes from the tree on the grave so that she can go to the ball. But she should be back home by midnight. She comes in a carriage so that the prince thinks she is a strange princess. The sisters are annoyed that they are not the most beautiful.

The next morning they don't want to tell anything, but Cinderella shows that she knows everything. In the evening she is supposed to pick peas. In the evening she goes dancing even more splendidly, leaves too late, loses her shoe on the stairs and transforms into the filthy creature on the street. As the sisters come home, they jealously tell of the princess. Cinderella doesn't say anything about it.

The prince announces that he wants to marry the one who fits the slipper. One sister cuts her heel, the other her toe, but the pigeons notice.

The stepmother wants to prevent Cinderella from trying on the shoe. The prince insists and finds the right bride, as the doves confirm.

The marriage and punishment of the wicked sisters are missing.

2. Bechstein

The Cinderella
(German fairy tale book 1857)

The girl is supposed to sleep in the attic, but sometimes she prefers to sleep in the ashes by the stove, which is why she is nicknamed Cinderella. She calls the little bird that sits on the soul tree and the doves to help. After the third dance, she accidentally loses a shoe. The sisters don't mutilate each other's feet, but the bird also picks out both eyes.

Overall, the narrative is very brief.

III. Motif story

1. "Souvenirs from the fair"

The motif actually belongs to the fairy tales of the animal bridegroom ("The singing and jumping little Löweneckerchen, Pintosmalto"), but can already be found in Basile's "Ashen Cat". Here, too, the father brings the branch of the soul tree with him.

2. "The tree and the bird"

Tree and bird represent the soul.

"The golden bird" begins with the bird stealing golden apples from the father's garden. Bird and golden apples are symbols of the emerging new life. [2]

a. "The tree"

i "A soul lives in the tree"

In the fairy tale "Von dem Machandelboom" the soul of the dead brother lives on in the bird, but his bones are buried under the tree and the soul bird appears on it for the first time.

In Basile's "Ashen Cat", a fairy lives in the tree. In "Cinderella" the tree grows on the mother's grave.

ii The miracle tree

The Christmas tree also carries luxury goods. But it also symbolizes the tree of life with "golden apples" from paradise.

iii The rice

Cinderella's miracle tree grew out of a branch. The motif comes from Isaiah 11: 1: "The tree of the house of David is cut down, the dynasty is extinct. But from the cut stump a new branch grows, which gives birth to the Messiah." The miracle of new life from the dead wood has flowed into the Christmas customs: Barbara twigs, Christmas tree and songs bear witness to this: "A rose rose ... in the middle of the cold winter" - "O Christmas tree, ... you green ... even in winter ..." [3]

b. "The bird that embodies the soul"

See "Von dem Machandelboom". Here the two pigeons represent the dead mother.

The bird is an ancient symbol for the soul and appears on stone age cave paintings.

3. "The girl is being bullied by her stepmother."

Similar to "Frau Holle"

4. "Selecting pulses as a chicane"

already with "Amor und Psyche"

5. "Animals help sort"

already with "Amor und Psyche"

6. "marry the owner of the shoes"

already at Rhodopis

Rhodopis does not accidentally lose her shoe, it is stolen from her. This is reminiscent of the stories in which a man steals the clothes of a bathing girl. [4] Here the king does not steal, but a bird of gods. [5] Since the pharaoh himself has divine qualities, the eagle probably also stands for himself: he robs Rhodopis of a pledge [6] and desires her to be a wife. Back then, too, the shoe was probably an individual piece of clothing that did not fit everyone. And: You could take it off without breaking the rules of decency.

IV. Literary templates

1. Rhodopis

Strabon, geography 17,1,33 [7] (died 23 AD)

"The following legend is told about Rhodopis: When she was bathing, an eagle seized one of her sandals (" slipper) "from her servant and carried it to Memphis. The king was just holding court (" gave a feast ") in the open air. As the eagle When he arrived above his head, he let the sandal fall into his lap. The king, touched by the beautiful shape of the sandal and by the strange occurrence, sent people in all directions in the country to "look for the woman" who made it She was found in the town of Naukratis and brought to Memphis. She became the king's wife. "

2. Type Cinderella

a. Eschengrüdel

The Strasbourg preacher Geiler von Kaisersberg (1445-1510) uses Eschengrüdel as an example of a humble woman who is not afraid of dirt, who does not have too much work and who in the end gets a good husband. [8]

b. The ash cat

Giambattista Basile, La gatta cennerentola, Pentamerone (1634-36) [9]

A prince has a daughter Lucretia whom he adores. After the death of her mother, she is pampered by a court master, but hated by the stepmother. The court master persuades Lucretia to kill the stepmother so that she can marry the king, then she will be better. So it happened, but the new stepmother prefers her own children, and Lucretia becomes an ash cat. When the father is traveling once, the stepdaughters ask him for various souvenirs. But Lucretia asks to bring something from the fairy from Sardinia. This is a date branch with accessories that quickly becomes a tree that fulfills Lucretius' wishes.

Once when the sisters went to a party, Lucretia wanted beautiful clothes and charmed the king who happened to be present with her beauty. He sends a servant after her, but she can shake him off. It goes the same way the next evening and the next but one, but there she loses a slipper that the servant picks up.

The king now invites all the women of his empire to a slipper test. Lucretia was not allowed to come with us at first, but comes along the second time. The slipper slips onto her feet by itself. The king marries her.

c. Cinderella or the glass slipper

Charles Perrault, Cendrillon ou La Petite Pantoufle de Verre, Histoires ou Contes du Temp Passé (1697) [10]

A nobleman marries a woman with two daughters who are pampered, but his own daughter has to do housework. After work, she sits down in the ashes and is called Cucendron 'Aschenarsch' or Cendrillon 'Ascherle'.

The two sisters want to go to the prince's ball and let Cendrillon advise them to iron and do their hair. That Cendrillon is going too is hardly an option.

Cendrillon wants to go and weep. Your godmother is a fairy. She asks her to fetch a pumpkin and turn it into a carriage. She takes six living mice out of the mousetrap and transforms them into horses, a rat into the coachman, and six lizards into lackeys. Now Cendrillon can drive off, but has no nice clothes. The fairy makes the girl's clothes beautiful and gives her a pair of glass slippers. Now she can go to the ball, the godmother admonishes her to come back before midnight because the magic expires at midnight. The prince and the whole ballroom look delighted. The prince dances with her, then there's a very nice snack. Cendrillon gives it to her sisters.

Shortly before 12 she runs home. When the sisters come home, she is just the same again. They talk enthusiastically about the strange princess. Cendrillon pretends to have liked to go and asks Javotte if she can have her everyday dress: Of course not.

On the third evening they go to the ball again, but forget the time, run home far too late and lose a slipper. The prince takes him and asks the guards if they have seen a princess: No.

The next day he announced that he wanted to marry those whose feet fit into the slipper. All sorts of women try it, including the sisters, in vain. Only at Cendrillon does it fit. She shows the other shoe that she still had. The fairy turns her back into a princess, the sisters ask for forgiveness and receive her. The prince marries Cendrillon and she arranges two great courtiers for her sisters.

Morality: 1. Grace is better than beauty.
2. Natural gifts are useless without a godparent or godmother.

V. Parallels

3. Type earth cooler

a. The white doe[11]

A widowed lumberjack has two daughters, Annele and Margretle. The second woman prefers the Annele and doesn't like the Margretle. She discusses with Annele that they should abandon their little sister in the forest. She listens in and tells her godmother. She advises her to mark the path with sawdust. So she finds her home again. The next day, however, she takes oat chaff and the birds eat it. She finds a cave in the forest with a white doe in it [12]. She takes it up and allows her to drink of her milk and gives her fine clothes. But you are not allowed to let anyone in.

Meanwhile, Anne has regretted helping the stepmother. She goes looking for her sister and finds her. Against her better judgment, Margretle lets her in. Anne becomes jealous of the beautiful clothes and tells the stepmother. She decides to fetch the clothes and slaughter the doe.

The animal knows and recommends burying the heart, placing the antlers on the grave and hanging the left hind hoof on the antler fork. [13] From it grows a cherry tree with beautiful heart-shaped fruits. [14]

The Duke of Lorraine comes in winter [15] with his sick son and is amazed that the tree carries churches. [16] Anne is supposed to pick cherries, but she doesn't succeed. They fall into the apron of Margretle by themselves. The prince gets well immediately and marries Annele. "But the two women are bursting with envy." The old father and the tree are brought to the castle, the killing of deer is prohibited, and cherry trees are planted across the country. [17]

b. Grimm: one-eyed, two-eyed and three-eyed [18]

One woman named her daughters one-eyed, two-eyed, and three-eyed, according to the number of her eyes. Mother and sisters cannot stand two-eyes that look no different from other people and push them around.

Zweiäuglein gets little to eat and has to look after the goat. A wise woman teaches her a spell to say to the goat and with which she can summon a set table. Since she is now leaving the meager supper, the sisters become suspicious. One-eye goes with them and is supposed to monitor them, but falls asleep so that it does not notice where Two-Eyes gets its food from. Dreiäuglein goes with you the next day, only sleeps with two eyes, observes with the third and reports to her mother. This kills the goat, so that Two-Eyes now has nothing to eat.

The wise woman helps her again. Zweiäuglein buries the intestines of the goat in front of the front door, from which a tree grows with silver leaves and golden fruits that only two eyes can pick. And again, mother and sisters are jealous.

A handsome knight is coming. The sisters hide the shabby two eyes. The knight asks for a branch. The sisters try in vain. After all, Two-Eyes has to break off a branch and make a wish. She complains to the knight of her suffering and asks to redeem her. He takes her with him and marries her. But the miracle tree withers.

One day the sisters come to the castle and beg. Two eyes welcomes them and they repent of their wickedness.

4. Allerleirau type

a. Allerleirau

Here the heroine flees from her father, who wants to take her as his wife. She disguises herself with a fur, dances three times with the king's son, flees, hides and can be recognized by a little something. The cook she works for is good-natured and doesn't bully her.

b. Catskin

English fairy tale: cat fur [19]

A rich nobleman wants a son and heir, but has a daughter. She is beautiful, but the father does not want to know anything about her and tells her to marry the first man who comes up to her. This is a nasty, raw old man.

The girl takes advice from a witch: she only takes him if she gets a dress made of silver, gold, or feathers. She gets it all, after all, she wants one made of cat fur.She gets that too, puts it on and leaves.

She employs a lady of the castle as a kitchen maid. They are called cat fur because of their clothing. The cook doesn't like her.

A feast is to be held on the occasion of the return of the young gentleman. Cat fur wants to go too, but the cook pours water on her face and breaks a ladle and slotted spoon on her. Cat fur goes to the ball three times in her wonderful clothes and the young gentleman is completely in love with her. But it does not reveal where it is from. Eventually he learns that she is his kitchen maid. His mother is horrified, but since her son becomes very sick with love, she finally lets cat fur come over. She's wearing the golden dress. The mother is enthusiastic and agrees to the marriage.

A son is born. He is allowed to give money to a beggar woman, but he gives it to her child, who kisses him and the cook gleefully notes that beggar child is drawn to beggar child.

Now Katzenfell tells her story and asks her husband to see how his parents are doing. They go there: the mother is dead, the father is melancholy. He regrets that he disregarded his daughter and would be happy to see her again. This happens. They take the father to the castle.

c. Bechstein, ash blower with the whip [20]

(In the original, the father wanted his daughter to be his wife and she wanted the things.)

A rich widower has a daughter whom he loves and pampers beyond measure. She wishes and receives a silver, gold and diamond dress and kisses her father in return. Then she wishes for a dowser that is hard to come by. An old wizard has one and warns: If the owner hands the switch over, he must die within three days. The father is ready for anything and has sacrificed the rest of his fortune for this trip. He gives the rod to the daughter.

After three days she has a new wish: to marry a distant prince. The father cannot help her because he has no more money and dies.

The daughter takes off her clothes, puts on a crow's fur and wishes for this prince's castle. There she hides her clothes in an oak tree, which she has turned into a closet, disguises herself as a boy and lets the cook employ her as an ash blower and clothes keeper.

On occasion she sees the prince and falls in love with him, but does not dare to speak to him. There is a three-day wedding in the neighboring castle to which the prince has been invited. The cook allows the ash blower to go too. She puts on the silver dress, conjures up a carriage and drives to the festival. She dances with the prince and disappears again. The prince asks about her, but nobody knows anything. The next morning he is disgruntled and lets the ash blower clean his boots. She tries hard, but the hangover makes a mark on it. The prince throws the boot at the head of the ash blower and has it cleaned again.

The next evening she goes back in a golden dress. The prince asks about their origin: "from boot throwing". After an hour it disappeared again. The prince asks a privy councilor where the Stiefelschmeiß castle is located. Since he doesn't know, the prince is upset again. The next morning he had his skirt brushed out, but found a piece of dust and threw the brush on the head of the ash blower.

On the third evening she dances in the diamond dress. The prince asks her name: Cinerosa brush head. He puts a ring on her and becomes engaged to her. And again she disappeared. The prince follows her in his chariot, although he cannot see hers because of a spell, he follows the noise. It is now morning and work begins. Ash blower hastily pulls the crow's fur over the dress. The prince finds himself in front of his own castle and is upset again.

The cook cooks him a soup in which the ash throws the ring. The prince finds him and lets the ash blower comb his body. He sees the dress shimmering through the translucent fur of the crow and recognizes his bride. Before the wedding, the benevolent cook is promoted to the Erbtruchsess.

V. Interpretation

1. Core of the fairy tale

The common basis for "Cinderella", "Das Erdkühlein" and "Allerleirau" is the story of the girl who is pushed around and bullied and finally gets the prince.

a. Allerleirau

Allerleirau and her fellow sufferers want their father to have nice clothes and then work as a kitchen help in the castle, i.e. in the household of the future mother-in-law.

b. Erdkühlein and Cinderella

The other heroines are bullied by the stepmother and older sisters. The dead mother helps them:

i in the shape of a tree

The tree grants them all luxury desires.

ii in the form of non-human beings

In the guise of goat, earth cow and doe, they feed the heroine until she is killed. The miracle tree grows from the buried remains

In the form of birds, they help the heroine at work, throw the wonderful clothes from the tree and ensure law and order.

2. Supplements

In Cinderella, this core was supplemented by the following features:

a. The rice

The father brings back a branch from a trip from which the miracle tree grows.

b. The Cinderella

The heroine has to do dirty kitchen work, sleeps in the ashes and thus gets her nickname, originally "ash cat", because she sleeps like a cat in the warm ashes at her workplace - a symbol of deep humiliation.

Perhaps the symbolism that Kaisersberg recognizes in it is even intentional: Ashes are reminiscent of death ("Ashes to Ashes"); the daughter rests in the ashes like the mother in the earth. Ashes are also a symbol of repentance ("go in sackcloth", ash cross on Ash Wednesday ").

Allerleirau, on the other hand, takes on the kitchen work voluntarily.

The fact that the teenage heroine is bullied by her future mother-in-law, has to read legumes and finds help from non-human beings can ultimately be traced back to "Amor und Psyche".

c. The three day festival

Here "Cinderella" and "Allerleirau" correspond in contrast to "Erdkühlein", where there is no festival. [21]

Grimm's version from 1812 brings an increase (first watch, then go dancing, then lose your shoe). Originally there was only talk of increasingly expensive clothes. According to the laws of narration, nos. 1 and 2 are only similar unsuccessful attempts [22], only number 3 brings success. When an increase is told, it is used to express a development, here in the relationship with the prince.

What is peculiar about these two types of fairy tales is the interplay between turning and fleeing. The girl goes dancing three times, putting on more expensive clothes every evening to attract the prince's attention, and every time she runs away again. At home she puts on her everyday clothes again, it's the same in real life. The girl lets herself be conquered and doesn't just throw anything around the prince's neck.

d. The slipper test

The conclusion that the king wants to marry the owner of the slipper comes clearly from the story of Rhodopis. With "Cinderella" it is a pledge that the heroine inadvertently leaves behind - or did she want to lose it? That fits organically into the course of the story: During the quick escape you can lose a slipper (shoe open at the back). [23] The bad luck on the stairs was actually unnecessary. In real life, the lady dropped a handkerchief or glove.

It is different with Rhodopis, who knows nothing about the king and whose shoe is stolen.

At "Allerleirau" the girl throws the engagement ring into the soup and reveals herself with it.

3. Developmental psychological interpretation

a. The child feels deprived and bullied

Unfortunately, it still happens today that children are bullied by their siblings, just as they do not experience love from their mother or stepmother or are abused as cheap labor. The fairy tale of "Cinderella" does not tell of such special cases, but of an ordinary girl, from the egocentric point of view of a child:

As an infant, it was allowed to receive the mother's undivided attention. But this paradisiacal time will come to an end. The mother has other matters to attend to as well. A child can experience this as a rejection, especially when it realizes that it has to share the mother's care with its siblings. It then easily gets the impression: the mother prefers the siblings to me.

It goes without saying that the children had to help with household chores earlier, the girls mostly in the kitchen. The auxiliary services at the kitchen stove with soot and ashes are not occupations for a "princess" in beautiful clothes, one puts on coarse work clothes or discarded things that are allowed to get dirty from time to time. A child does not yet understand the point of work. Pea selection was necessary because these legumes were of different quality and also mixed up with remains of the pods and other waste. A child does this not because they see the need, but because they have to. It feels this work as pointless harassment, once again proof of the hatred of the other women in the house.

Today's children also know what it is like when they want to meet their friends or go to a party, and parents only allow this if this or that has been done beforehand: "First work, then play". Or they know what it is like when the older siblings are allowed to go out for a pleasure that they are still too young for. How often does envy awaken when the elderly tell us what they have experienced the next morning.

None of this has to be willful malice, but it can be understood that way from the egocentric point of view of a child.

b. A prince in sight

The continuation with the three-day ball actually assumes that Cinderella is already of marriageable age, after puberty. This is obviously the case with "Allerleirau" at the beginning of the story: She looks for a job in the castle kitchen and does not feel that working on the stove is unreasonable or humiliation.

What is special about the second part of the fairy tale is that the dirty, despised Cinderella turns into an enchanting beauty that the prince falls in love with. Of course, you dress particularly nicely for a ball and don't wear work clothes. That and how Cinderella comes to the most precious clothes in a wonderful way is not so important. It is crucial that the young lady herself experiences a change that makes her beautiful and desirable. The beautiful clothes only underline the charm that she herself exudes.

At the ball she also finds a dancer who falls so deeply in love with her that he only cares about her for the three evenings. That the young man is a "prince" is just the usual idiom of the fairy tale. It doesn't have to be the center of the ball, as the prince's title suggests, but it is the center of the girl's experience. So here again the egocentric view.

In the different versions of the fairy tale it is emphasized again and again how upset the young man is from this encounter, how troubled by the sudden escape, and how he tries everything to get to know her better. A lost slipper becomes a kind of fetish that he takes on and ultimately a kind of key to lasting contact.

Even the most beautiful ball comes to an end and a decent girl goes home early or even has to be back at a certain time. It is normal for them to take off their beautiful clothes and everyday clothes at home. It goes without saying that on the third evening the "prince" is still unable to establish a permanent relationship or even establish an engagement.

According to real life, he must now visit the beloved at home. There he doesn't find a fairytale princess in beautiful clothes, but a young woman in her everyday life, in work clothes.

The prince doesn't mind. He doesn't want to know how the bride lives at home. He doesn't know who she is yet and tries to track down the stranger he had danced with.

In the older models of the fairy tale, the prince lets all women in his realm or at least in his surroundings try on the slippers. There is no question of that at Grimm. The prince single-mindedly goes to Cinderella's father, the only question is which of the three daughters the shoe fits. This is a narrative shortening of the original representation, but it sounds much more realistic: the young man knows exactly where to look for his bride, maybe he is just using the shoe as a pretext for a visit to the house: he wants to bring the slipper back and see his beloved on this occasion.

c. The right bride

In practice, the family members would easily recognize Cinderella's shoe. With that the young man is in the house, but not yet with his bride. So it is very clever that he insists that she try the precious piece on for herself.

The fairy tale is not satisfied with passing the shoe test. It happens often enough that other women are in love with the "Prince" and try to outdo each other. That they do violence to themselves in order to pass the test, perhaps also, if not in such a way, that they mutilate their feet. The fact that the cheaters are exposed by the pigeons and punished in the end is part of the dramaturgy of the fairy tale, but it rarely happens in real life.