What is the Ackerman Principle

Dilution techniques and Fick's principle

Monitoring in Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine pp 250-291 | Cite as


Indicator dilution methods have long been used for clinical diagnostics and for scientific measurements of flows, distribution volumes and organ functions. The first approaches to the use of indicators probably go back to Albrecht von Haller (1708–1777), who injected liquid wax into vessels in order to study its spread. Further milestones of the indicator dilution are shown on p. 254. In 1870, at a meeting of the Physiological-Medical Society in Würzburg, Fick announced the “Fick principle” named after him for the first time. His communications dealt with the application of the basic principle of conservation of mass (of oxygen), with the help of which the cardiac output can be calculated from the spirometrically determined O2Recording and the arteriovenous O2-Difference was possible. As early as 1897, Stewart published a method for the continuous measurement of cardiac output for the first time. He used a constant infusion of NaCl solution in combination with downstream electrodes to measure conductivity in the blood. The cardiac output could be calculated from the changes in conductivity. The use of bolus injections and corrections for a recirculation of the indicator go back to Henriques and Hamilton.

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further reading

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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1995

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