What is anaphoric and cataphoric reference

Anaphoric reference

Definition: anaphor
An anaphor is a term that refers to one of the aforementioned terms (his Antecedent) refers back. Anaphora and antecedent are co-speaker, i.e. they both refer to the same entity.
Like the deixis, the anaphoric reference is a contextual case of reference.

E.g .: I like Thomas. He is a good boy.
Thomas -> antecedent
he -> anaphor

If the antecedent only follows after the expression referring to it, this expression is called Cataphor designated.

Example: He is an exemplary student. You can really learn a thing or two from Vincent!
he -> cataphore
Vincent -> Antecedent

Not only personal pronouns of the 3rd person. can be used as anaphers or cataphors. Other expressions are also used anaphorically.

Example: Helga lives in Stuttgart. She likes to live there.
The anaphorically used expression “there” refers to its antecedent “Stuttgart” and is co-referent with it, since both expressions refer to the same entity.

Example: Karl is hardworking. This guy is studying like crazy.
“This type” is used anaphorically and refers to his antecedent “Karl” with which he is co-referent.