Arunachala Temple, How To Achieve Nirvana
This religious idea of the highest salvation goal is common to the Indian religions of Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism. Related terms or terms used synonymously are Nirvana in Buddhism and Kaivalya.
Moksha involves liberation from the chain of birth, and deathRebirth (samsara) and represents the ultimate goal of human life. Although there is a concept of 'heaven' in Hinduism that a person with good karma can enjoy after the death of the body, it is only temporary. The myths also describe various 'hells' for evildoers, but Hindus do not assume that even the most serious misconduct could have eternal effects. The individual inevitably comes back to earth and the cycle from birth to birth continues until final salvation.
This cycle (samsara) or the relative existence in the material world, is mostly assessed as negative, as a kind of prison, illusion, as something to which one is chained.Moksha denotes the liberation from this bond. Hinduism means the liberation of the soul and just as in Jainism, Sikhism and Buddhism a liberation from the I-thought or ego, according to which one should experience a dualism of individuality and non-individuality ("I am while I am not at the same time" ). Enlightenment is also always associated with knowledge related to the nature of that bond. In the Hindu Advaita Vedanta philosophy it is the knowledge that the world is an illusion, that one's own ego is also an illusion and, according to its nature, is identical with the formless divine,brahman. In the Upanishads, however, the soul is described as individual because it is part of theParamatman, the absolute Oversoul exists. The liberation from the ego-thought is therefore only the liberation from the, through the material energy (Maya) caused illusion about the true absolute self.
A problem with the termMoksha is that by its nature it is a phenomenon beyond the human mind, so it is precisely defined by the fact that it goes beyond it. Therefore, descriptions of enlightenment are often paradoxical and, like the concept of God, are beyond rational explanations. Much of the Hindu scriptures are aboutMoksha deals with the negation or dissolution of mental religious concepts or ideas (Ribhu Gita, Ashtavakra Gita, Avadhuta Gita).
Many traditions describe enlightenment as a state of detachment; H. freed from 'me' and attachment to the world. This condition is also calledSack ski (Witness consciousness). For some, however, this state of witnessing is just the beginning, as it is still a state of duality. In the end, however, there is complete unity in the worldbrahman, the highest, formless being. The Mahayana Buddhist phrase "Nirvana is samsara" could point in the same direction. Naturally, such an approach leads to a less negative evaluation of the world, since it is seen as one and identical to Brahman or Nirvana.
For the followers of Advaita-Vedanta canMoksha can only be achieved during human life, not after death. It is said that for this ultimate goal even the devas, the heavenly ones, must first be born human, since salvation can only be achieved in human life. Your existence in the 'heavenly' state is not infinite. The person who experiences complete salvation during life is calledJivan Mukta (Jivan = Soul,Mukti = Liberation).
Others, however, especially believers in dualistic bhakti traditions, assume that one is only after death by God's graceMoksha can experience. This final enlightenment after death is calledVideha Mukti designated.
When temporary enlightenment experiences are meant, it is usually fromSamadhi the speech.Sahaja Samadhi, however, the natural samadhi is identical toJivan Mukti.
The traditions of Hinduism recommend three, and occasionally four, different ways ofMoksha to achieve: the path of love for God (Bhaktiyoga), the path of knowledge (Jnana yoga) as well as the path of selfless deed (Karma yoga). The teaching of theBhaktiyoga, to which some popular currents of Vishnuism as well as Shaivism belong, propagates that man needs the grace of God in order to attain salvation. While some argue that this grace would come through loving devotion (Bhakti), others assume the grace of God, which is obtained without any action on their part.
Especially in the directions of theVaishnava Bhakti Yoga, the path of many followers of Vishnu, salvation is not about the unity and identity of the individual with himBrahmanbut about participation and communion with God, similar to the ideas of salvation in Christianity. Here willMoksha understood as a liberation from material existence after death as well as freedom from all mental bonds, not as a dissolution of any duality. For them isBhakti, the love of God and God's love of man, the only requirement.
The way of theJnana Yoga proceeds from salvation through the pursuit of true knowledge and understanding. According to the advocates of this path, the inexorable law ofkarmaaccording to which man is solely responsible for his own salvation. This corresponds to the view of classical Brahmanism and the philosophy of the Upanishads. TheAdvaita Vedanta describes in theMahavakyas the soul (Atman) as identical toBrahman, the formless Supreme and Absolute Consciousness -Ayam Atma Brahma. The realization of this identity leads to the dissolution of the false I-thought (Ahamkara) superimposed on the Atman.Moksha here means the knowledge of the unity of the individual with the highest divine,Brahman.
Karma yoga orKarmamarga, Yoga indeed, calls for action without attachment to the results. Often this term is also understood as a way of selfless service.
Some schools, such as Vivekananda, still count as the fourth path to salvationRaja Yoga which also includes meditation and asceticism.
The IndianBrahma Kumaris World Spiritual University (BKWSU) sees in Moksha resp.Jīvan Mukti a central concept of their theology.Jīvan Mukti translated means: liberation in life. What is meant is a life with God, so that the practitioner is free from external and internal influences after long practice. He leads a positive, value-oriented life, towards others. However, it is first determined by the emotional closeness and loving relationship with God. For the religious-spiritual group, one is a white point of light with an oval, gold-red light aura.
Moksha or.Jīvan Mukti the member learns when it is the spiritualRaja Yoga theBrahma Kumaris dedicates with the aim of mastering his life. The world of redemption, d. H. without suffering and body, is for thatBrahma Kumaris a world of light beyond, of them the highest place (Paramdham) called, a dimension of light without sound. The goal of all meditative endeavors is not ultimate salvation as in Buddhism.
In Buddhism, the common name for salvation is nirvana. In Jainism are bothMoksha howNirvana common; their uses are interchangeable.
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