Three graces around 1636 Powhatan

Johann of Luxembourg

Life

Johann, King of Bohemia and Count of Luxembourg, son of Henry VII of Luxembourg and Margaretha of Brabant, was born on August 10, 1296. Little is known of his youth; he probably lived her in Luxembourg in the lap of his family. Later he was sent to Paris to train at the French court in knightly customs and in the forms of genteel society; a circumstance which became of no small importance for the government of the future prince. On November 27, 1308, Johann's father, Heinrich VII., Was elected German Emperor and soon afterwards was crowned with his wife in Aachen. Now the affairs of the empire occupied him so much that he entrusted the administration of his county of Luxembourg to a governor, Aegidius, Herr v. Rodemacher, had to leave, probably with the intention of handing over the county to his son Johann as soon as possible. In 1309, J. still had the title of Count of Luxembourg, although the formal cession of the land did not take place until the beginning of July 1310; on July 3rd J. appears for the first time with his full title as Count of Luxembourg, Laroche and Margrave of Arlon; as such, he had only confirmed the privileges of the city of Luxembourg and the Benedictine monastery of Munster near Luxembourg, as well as various donations made by his father to the monasteries of Marienthal and Bonneweg, when he was offered the crown by the estates of Bohemia. The greatest disorder had existed here for some time; To steer this, most of the nobles of the country turned their gaze to the House of Luxemburg, whose head had just ascended the German imperial throne, and in a meeting of the nobility and the citizens it was decided to hand the crown of Bohemia to the only son of the king to the 17 year old Princess Elisabeth. Already at a first meeting that Emperor Heinrich had on August 14, 1309 at Heilbronn with the abbot Konrad von Königsaal, he had shown himself inclined to stand up for Elisabeth against Heinrich von Kärnthen. In the meantime the disorder got bigger and bigger until the Princess Elisabeth had to flee after multiple abuse and a civil war broke out. Around July 7, 1310 Heinrich left the city of Luxembourg with his son and went to Frankfurt, where he had announced a general diet in order to hear and investigate the complaints and wishes of the Bohemian delegates with the help of all the princes. Here Heinrich of Carinthia was declared forfeit of Bohemia and on July 25th Emperor Heinrich declared that his son would marry the Bohemian princess. For the wedding celebration he determined September 1st, when Elisabeth was to arrive in Speyer; At the request of the Bohemian ambassadors that he should let his son go with them now, take possession of the empire and celebrate the wedding in Prague, he refused to accept at any price. At the same time, with the consent of the princes who were present in large numbers, he appointed him imperial administrator for five years, since the time of the journey to Rome was approaching and he necessarily had to secure the peace of the country for the time of his absence. On August 31, after taking the usual feudal oath, J. received the investiture with Bohemia and its crown lands; the following day he was married by the Archbishop of Mainz to the Bohemian princess, who had been at Heinrich's court for a few days. J. stayed with his father for three more weeks; It was not until September 21 that they parted with Colmar, Heinrich, in order to travel to Rome with his wife Margaretha, J., in order to win the crown of Bohemia at the head of an army; For the time of his minority, the Archbishop of Mainz and Berthold von Henneberg were appointed plenipotentiaries in Bohemia on September 16. Even before Johann's marriage, Heinrich von Kärnthen had seized the city of Kuttenberg and on September 14th he had also succeeded in conquering Prague, which now had to endure a lot with the whole area. The dismay in Johann's entourage was therefore great when they, at Speyer, received news of these events, to which was added the fact that the Imperial Army was only gathering slowly, so that J. was not able to leave Nuremberg until October 18th. No sooner did he enter Bohemia than daily Bohemian nobles came to him; By bypassing Prague, he turned against Kuttenberg, but saw all attacks repulsed and therefore moved via Kolin an der Elbe | before Prague, which, after the siege began on November 28th, came under the control of the Germans on December 3rd through treason ; Heinrich von Kärnthen, who had withdrawn to the castle on the Lesser Town when the city was taken, left it on the 9th of the same month and returned to Moravia. After the fall of Prague, all cities soon recognized the rule of the new prince and only a few castles, in which Duke Heinrich had left garrisons behind, had to be taken with a stormy hand. The task now was to restore public calm, in which Peter von Mainz in particular, who as provost of Wyscherad and as former high chancellor under Wenceslaus II knew the constitution and all conditions of the country very well, rendered the most beneficial services to the young king. J. declared all privileges which had been granted to the towns or individual citizens under Heinrich von Carinthia to be null and void; on the other hand, he himself granted the Bohemians extensive privileges at the Diet in Prague at the end of December 1310; in particular he confirmed the old law of the estates that they were not obliged to campaign against their will beyond the borders of Bohemia and Moravia, and promised not to give court or state offices to foreigners, nor to buy them goods in Bohemia and Moravia to allow. On February 7, 1311, J. and his wife were solemnly crowned by the Archbishop of Mainz in the Prague Cathedral. Incidentally, the beginnings of his government were extremely favorable. In March of the same year he succeeded in regaining the margraviate of Moravia, which his father had pledged to the Dukes of Austria, where he went with Queen Elisabeth in May to restore order. At Olomouc he reached an agreement with his brother-in-law, Duke Boleslaus of Breslau, about the Duchy of Troppau, that the latter would give up his claims for a sum of 8,000 marks and also waive any trousseau for his wife. At the Diet in Brno, where J. received homage from the Moravian Estates, a general peace was proclaimed, and Moravia was guaranteed the same rights and privileges that J. had granted the Bohemian Estates a few months earlier. So J. succeeded in restoring order in Bohemia and Moravia; the hostile inhabitants of the country and the cities were treated with gentleness and sparing, whereas he showed himself relentlessly against the robber barons, who, especially under Duke Heinrich's weak government, had plundered the rural inhabitants with impunity and some of whom even now do not find their way into the new order could. During a stay in Vienna in May 1312, J. concluded a treaty with the dukes Friedrich and Leopold von Oesterreich to support them against their enemies for four years, against which the two dukes declared that they would agree to a sum of 30,000 marks because of Moravia, to submit to the arbitration ruling of Emperor Heinrich or, if he died, to the five arbitrators to be elected. J. also promised them his help with Swiss affairs. Unfortunately, a terrible famine now struck Bohemia and Moravia and spread unspeakable misery, which fortunately was brought to an end by the plentiful harvest of the following year. While J. fortunately fortified his rule in Bohemia and Moravia, his father was in Italy. On January 6, 1311 he was crowned at Milan with the Lombard crown and, after losing his wife on December 13, he was crowned emperor on June 29, 1312. In view of the infinite difficulties, which were increasing day by day, he turned to the empire and asked for new troops to be sent. In accordance with his father's orders, J., as imperial vicar, wrote a diet to Nuremberg on January 6, 1313, where the unanimous decision was made to send an imperial army to the aid of the emperor, who had just besieged Florence with insufficient strength Contingents should gather in Zurich in the summer. While Johann was preparing for this campaign, his wife gave birth to him on July 8, 1313, a daughter named after his mother, Margaretha, who had just passed away. In the second half of August J. set out with many Bohemian and Moravian nobles to supply his father with the reinforcements he wanted, just as the nobles of the other parts of Germany had set out and moved to Italy. In Nuremberg, J. appointed Count Berthold von Henneberg as regent of his countries and, after having united here with the bishops of Regensburg and Eichstädt, with Ludwig von Oettingen and the burgrave Friedrich of Nuremberg, immediately set out on the journey to Zurich via Mm ; in the vicinity of Biberach, however, he received news of his father's death on August 24th. In response to this news, some nobles rode away with their troops, others even attacked the Bohemians, who were seen as enemies of the German Empire. In spite of the deep impression that the news had on J., he did not lose his courage: he made up his mind to return his army to Bohemia, since there was no reason to continue the march to Italy and the Archbishop was also from Mainz had retreated for the same reason with the Rhenish war bands. From now on he was inspired by the desire to follow his father in the dignity of emperor; for this purpose he met in October with Peter von Mainz, who had already had a meeting in September at Coblenz with the two other Rhenish archbishops about the imminent election of the king, and since it was inevitable for him to combine the administration of his Bohemian lands Entrusting deputies, after a few negotiations, he persuaded the Archbishop of Mainz to take over the administration together with Berthold von Henneberg; Both went to Bohemia, where Johann's wife also returned, who had been with him at least recently, while J. himself from now on stayed for almost a whole year in the Rhine region and in his county of Luxemburg. Before he was divorced from here, he had appointed Aegidius von Rodemachern as governor for the time of his absence, who held this office for several years. But even when J. was in Bohemia, he had by no means forgotten his home country. Nothing was ever more important to him than the expansion of his household power, and he was constantly anxious to increase the number of his feudal people. Sometimes he bought goods, sometimes castles, and gave them to powerful lords as fiefs for a more or less significant return, just as he used very considerable sums of money to draw influential men into the fiefdom. A list of these acquisitions does not belong here; most of the documents or regesta are found in the writings to be mentioned below. He also knew how to happily resolve old, inherited issues; On June 24, 1314, both brothers renounced the county of Durbuy, which had already been awarded to his father Henry VII in 1307, which Johann and Gerhaet von Blankenstein had still contested against him on June 24, 1314; He had just as happy (November 29, 1313) ended a similar dispute with Ludwig, Count of Looz and Chiny. It was to be expected that J. regardless of his youth (he was not yet fully 17 years old) would apply for the German crown, although some well-founded reasons could induce him to do so. After all, he was the son of the last emperor and therefore had more or less right to the crown. Moreover, he was by no means secured on the recently acquired throne in Bohemia; and he always had to fear two opponents who could become very dangerous through their union and other connections: Heinrich von Kärnthen, who still called himself King of Bohemia, and the Dukes of Austria, who at any moment have theirs from King Albrecht Dated claims against the Bohemian crown could be asserted, claims which, as German emperor, he was able to reject with determination. His project won the approval and support of the electors of Mainz and Trier; Both met with the Archbishop of Cologne near Coblenz to discuss the imminent election of the king, but, since they could not agree, decided to set a further period for consultation and meanwhile to research the intentions and attitudes of the other electors. They were not very inclined to vote for the all too youthful J., who also had a very dangerous rival in Friedrich von Oesterreich, who did not save the money to buy the votes. Neither was allowed to. J. reckon on the recommendation and support of the Pope, who in the last days of Henry VII had been unfriendly and even hostile to him. J. first turned to Count Palatine Rudolf, Duke of Baiern, but in vain; for this he won the Counts von Berg, Jülich and Sponheim, but above all his uncle Balduin von Trier, by confirming several favors granted to him either by his father or by his predecessors of the Trier church and at the same time by confirming him for the many Compensated in favor of sacrifices made. Friedrich von Oesterreich, for his part, did everything possible to enforce his own election and actually won several electors. In June the archbishops of Cologne, Trier and Mainz met for the second time in Rense to discuss and agree on the election, the other electors being represented by MPs; the very agitated assembly, however, dissolved without result, since the Archbishop of Cologne stubbornly insisted on the election of Frederick of Austria, but Baldwin of Trier and Peter of Mainz did not want to give up their candidates at any price. On October 19th all the electoral princes were to meet in Frankfurt for the election. During these negotiations J. was still in his home country, the administration of which he had completely handed over to his uncle Baldwin in August 1314, and tried, in agreement with him, to recruit numerous servants who promised him their assistance until he went to the Roman King is chosen. And yet both of Johann's main supporters had to convince themselves of the impossibility of getting their candidate through, in view of Duke Friedrich's tremendous recruitment and the two fruitless meetings, who, because of his great youth, found little favor with most of the princes. They therefore decided, with Johann's consent, to oppose Duke Friedrich with another applicant, namely Duke Ludwig von Baiern, who by his brilliant victory at Gamelsdorf (Nov. 9, 1313) not only humiliated the Austrians, but also the fame of a brave and skillful general. In Lorch, Ludwig, who until then had been on Friedrich's side, met Peter von Mainz and came with him to Coblenz to see Balduin and Johann; He made rich promises to the two electors and also to J. and, on the other hand, received the oath of promise from these three that they would elect him as Roman king and support him with all their might. The Luxembourg party soon won over the two Margraves of Brandenburg, Waldemar and Heinrich, for their candidate. Meanwhile, election day was approaching. The princes came against Frankfurt from all sides; J. and the Luxembourg party occupied the electoral field on the right bank of the Main in the suburbs, Friedrich came up on the left bank of the Rhine and camped with his supporters near Sachsenhausen. Frankfurt, for its own safety and in accordance with old electoral custom, had closed the gates to both parties. Now the well-known double election took place: in Sachsenhausen around noon on October 19, Duke Friedrich was elected King of Rome, on the election field on October 20, Duke Ludwig was elected King of Rome. Both parties reported to the Pope asking him to determine the time of the anointing and coronation. On October 22nd, J. announced to the imperial cities of Frankfurt, Friedberg, Wetzlar and Gelnhausen that by him, the Archbishops of Mainz and Trier, Waldemar of Brandenburg and Johann the Elder of Saxony Duke Ludwig had been legitimately elected as a Roman king. On the third day after the election, King Ludwig was admitted to the city of Frankfurt and soon afterwards was crowned at Aachen; Friedrich, whom the Frankfurters refused to let in, was anointed and crowned king of Rome by the Archbishop of Cologne in Bonn. On December 4th and 17th, after having previously compensated Baldwin von Trier, Ludwig presented J.from Luxembourg the most important letters of assistance and compensation, in which he granted him the most extensive privileges and privileges; Among other things, he promised to stand by him especially against the Habsburgs if they wanted to wrest Bohemia and the countries belonging to it from him, and to want to procure everything that John's father-in-law, King Wenzel, owned; He reimbursed him for the great expenses and transferred him the Egerland and the castles Floß and Parkstein for 10,000 marks, and for a further 30,000 marks, Johann and Balduin at the same time, part of the customs at Bacharach with the pledging of Bacharach, Stalberg, Staleck and Braunshorn. In this way J. might have increased his rule considerably, but the inevitable war between the newly elected kings could also put everything at risk: his lands on the Rhine and Moselle were threatened by the Archbishop of Cologne and the Count Palatine of the Rhine; in Bohemia he had to face an attack from Heinrich von Kärnthen, from whom he snatched the scepter, from the King of Poland, from his neighbors in Austria and even from a certain number of Bohemian noblemen who were annoyed that so many foreigners came with the Luxembourger had come to their country from the Moselle and Rhine region. In addition, he had to be careful to support King Ludwig with army power. Immediately after the election of the king, J. returned to Bohemia, where the barons had long held secret meetings and pondered ways of driving the Germans out of the country. They fully achieved their purpose by suspecting the Germans at J. and accusing them of bad administration. J. soon gave in to the aristocratic requests of the nobility and dismissed all Germans from his service, whereas in April 1315 he appointed the chamberlain of the empire Heinrich von Lipa to be Oberstlandmarschall of Bohemia and his friend Jesek von Wartenberg to be the supreme regent of Moravia. Thus the purpose of the nobles was fulfilled, who saw in a strong, unrestricted kingdom based on foreign officials loyal to him, a serious enemy of their national rights. The unfortunate consequences of this step soon became apparent: on the one hand, under Heinrich's unauthorized administration, the income of the crown dwindled more and more, on the other hand, Heinrich tried to outshine the king himself through the splendor of his court and the number of his entourage and to keep him in a certain dependence on himself . The struggle between king and nobility seemed inevitable; but this time it was postponed by the war against the Hungarian Count Matthäus von Trenczin, who had particularly badly afflicted the margraviate of Moravia and had even conquered and occupied some permanent places on the Hungarian border. On May 21, 1315, J. left Prague with an army recruited in Bohemia and Luxembourg, moved across the March after taking the Wessel Castle and besieged, albeit unsuccessfully, the Alba fortress, which was in Hungary but still belonged to Bohemia. Having won a brilliant victory under the walls of this city, he entered into negotiations with the Count of Trenczin, lifted the siege, and entered Brno on July 25th; soon he returned to Bohemia, where he installed inquisitors against the mass heretics through the bishop of Prague. Here Heinrich von Lipa himself prepared his case; his imperious demeanor and ruthless demeanor displeased not only the royal court, but also some of the nobility, and when he now, without bothering about his king, a marriage between Agnes, the daughter of King Wenceslas II and Elizabeth, and the mediating young Duke Heinrich von Jauer in Silesia and even pledging the town of Grätz to him on this occasion, J., only obeying the ideas of his barons, made the hasty decision to take Heinrich von Lipa prisoner as a high traitor. On October 26, 1315, Heinrich was arrested in Prague and taken to Teyrow Castle. Unfortunately, this step provoked a civil war, in the wake of which there was again much misery and misfortune over the country. The nobility divided into two parties; Heinrich's followers gathered in Bohemian Brod; Wilhelm Zajic, now Oberstlandmarschall and lower chamberlain, Peter von Rosenberg and Bishop Johann von Drazic stood on the king's side. While J. went to the field himself, he sent his wife to the Roman King Ludwig for help at Christmas, and, although he mostly won the following battles, in the spring also sent messengers to his uncle Baldwin of Trier, whom he hastened to get around Help requested. At the same time as Peter von Mainz, Baldwin complied with the request as quickly as possible and entered Prague on March 26, 1316 to the cheering of the people with 400 helmets. Both princes advised J. to settle the dispute in a peaceful way; According to the arbitration ruling of April 12th, Heinrich von Lipa was to be released after five days against a sufficient guarantee of his imprisonment. Then it seemed as if the civil war was over and a hopeful future was opening up for the country. The joy at the settlement of the fight was increased by the birth of a son, Wenzel, born on May 14, 1316, after the Queen had recovered a year ago, on May 20, 1315, to a second daughter Jutta. But the general joy was short-lived: the nobility persisted in their resistance to the king and just the half measures taken by J. and the two princes Baldwin and Peter brought the greatest calamity to Bohemia. When J., according to King Ludwig's request, who was hard pressed by his opponent Friedrich von Oesterreich, was to rush to his aid, he did not hesitate in any way despite the unrest in his own country. After he and his uncle Balduin, to whom he had so far owed 12,000 shocks of Prague groschen for the aid provided, had completed his accounts and appointed Peter of Mainz as his governor, he left Prague on August 17th, together with his uncle Balduin, united near Nuremberg with King Ludwig and moved with him to the city of Esslingen, which had been besieged by the Austrians for five weeks. Here he received the accolade from his uncle. After the meeting in the bed of the Neckar on September 19, 1316, through which Eßlingen was appalled, but the battle for the crown was by no means decided, J., who had distinguished himself above all for his courage and bravery, moved over Heilbronn and Wimpfen | to Trier and from there to his county of Luxembourg. Since his absence it had been almost completely quiet, thanks to the wise administration of Arnold, Mr. Pittingen, who was the state administrator, and Baldwin von Trier, who, as the young king's guardian, was concerned with the welfare of the country. Some disputes with Bishop Adolf von Liège and others seem to have been of little concern and not to have significantly disturbed the peace, whereas during this time the number of Luxembourg vassals had grown considerably. J. stayed in his county and in the Rhine region until the end of October 1317, at which time new unrest called him back to Bohemia. It was here that the Archbishop of Mainz had placed the deputy government in the hands of John's wife, Queen Elisabeth, and had left Bohemia on April 8 to return to its lands. With its removal, the Thor and Door riots were opened. No matter how gifted and energetic Queen Elizabeth was, she, who harbored the most vivid hatred of Heinrich von Lipa, was in her passionate excitement not up to the very complicated circumstances; and when she recruited troops abroad to attack her opponents with her help, a terrible civil war broke out. In order not to face the danger to herself and to no longer have to look at the disgusting scenes of the war, the Queen left Prague on June 19th and went to Elbogen with her three children, from where she asked the king to return soon. J. was still in the Rhine area and, at precisely this time, in Bacharach with King Ludwig, where he, Baldwin of Trier and Peter of Mainz made an alliance with King Ludwig on June 19, 1317, primarily against Friedrich von Austria was directed and where he also joined the great country peace, which Ludwig concluded for seven years. Through these negotiations, after which he once again returned to his county, J. had been stopped from listening to the urgent requests of his wife: only when he was asked again on September 22nd by Abbot Peter von Königsaal to return quickly did he promise to appear in Bohemia on November 12th. He kept his word; on that day he met his wife at Elbogen and returned with his family to Prague on the 18th. The clergy, the bourgeoisie and the country folk received J. with great joy, while only a few of the nobles took his side. J. decided to subjugate his opponents by force and despite the small number of his men (he had only 300 riders) and the harsh winter weather, he went straight against the rebels. Through the speed of his movements he succeeded in rendering some enemies harmless, even if only temporarily. On the other hand, the heads of the nobility turned to Friedrich von Oesterreich, apparently with the intention of ousting J. completely from Bohemia and choosing another ruler who could be more easily ruled by them. This is clearly demonstrated by the contract that they concluded with Friedrich and his brothers on December 27th, and in which, in the event of the nobility not reconciling with J., the former Bohemian king Heinrich von Kärnthen or one of Friedrich’s four brothers as king in John's place was taken. In addition to the civil war which devastated Bohemia and Moravia in the worst possible way, there were now the horrors of a terrible famine and a devastating plague. The barons carefully exploited this general misery to their advantage, and they spread the rumor that the king wanted nothing to do with a reconciliation and would snatch everything from them in order to enrich his Luxembourgers and Germans with their goods and those of the state. Thus the fight between the nobility and the king assumed a principled political character, and at a meeting in Klingenberg (February 2, 1318) the entire nobility of the country, even Wilhelm von Waldeck, who had hitherto been one of Johann's main supporters, decided all of them to join forces and to recruit auxiliary troops in Hungary, and soon afterwards they moved to Brno, where the king had been since February 6th. Heinrich von Lipa reached Brno and let J. report that he was looking for nothing but reconciliation and the restoration of peace. Since, however, all negotiations failed due to the excessive demands of the barons, but on the other hand J. could not count on defeating his much more powerful opponent in open battle, he left the city of Brno during the armistice and returned to Prague with his wife. At this decisive moment King Ludwig intervened; he well recognized what would also be at stake for himself if the throne of his most powerful ally were overthrown and a Habsburg was raised to the rank of King of Bohemia. Via Regensburg and Amberg he went to the scene of the war, crossed the borders of Bohemia, and entered into negotiations with him in Eger, where he had decided to go to J. J. himself had had the misfortune on his journey there to suffer a significant defeat at Saatz by Wilhelm Zajic von Waldeck. After several days of negotiations on Eger and Elbogen, through the mediation of King Ludwig and the same Wilhelm, an armistice for three weeks was reached, after which the reconciliation really came about in the Landtag at Tauß on April 23, albeit in that Senses as the nobility had wished: these only understood each other to break off their ties with Friedrich von Oesterreich; on the other hand, there was no question of postponing the royal castles and crown estates. J. took up all the landlords again with grace; Heinrich von Lipa even became sub-chamberlain and as such soon again absolute ruler of the country, Wilhelm Zajic became marshal of the empire. In addition, J. had to undertake to remove the Germans, to draw no more foreign troops into the country, not to appoint a foreigner to any office and to use only the advice of the Bohemians in all matters. After this peace, which had benevolent consequences in that it ushered in a period of relatively greater inner calm, but completely broke the power of royalty, King Ludwig returned to Bavaria and J., in his recklessness, traveled with Peter v. Rosenberg on his property in South Bohemia, where he spent three weeks hunting and other conversations. Shortly after this Thousand Treaty, he married his younger sister Beatrix to King Charles of Hungary. By this treaty, however, peace had still not fully returned to Bohemia; The landlords often misused their power to oppress the clergy, citizens and peasants, and J. himself, deprived of the income of the crown domains, all too often extorted large sums of money from monasteries and towns to cover the costs of keeping court and sometimes quite thou art undertakings. like the one told by Peter von Zittau on St. John's Day 1319 Feast of King Arthur's Round Table in the Thiergarten in Prague. So it happened that the king could not feel at home in Bohemia and even suggested to King Ludwig that Bohemia should be exchanged for the Rhine Palatinate. The negotiations about it did not lead to any result because of the energetic resistance of Queen Elizabeth, who wanted nothing to do with such an exchange. This circumstance disrupted the understanding between the two spouses and laid the ground for disagreements, which were carefully cultivated and exploited by the enemies of the strong, independent kingdom. The queen had long been a thorn in their side because, conscious of her dignity, she could not endure the humiliation of the crown and the annihilation of royal power, and she used all her influence to wrest her husband from his pleasures and amusements, which he cared for made the empire all too forgotten. The queen should therefore be separated from her husband; she was accused of wanting to deprive J. of the throne in order to raise her eldest son Wenzel (on November 22, 1318, in fact, she had given birth to a second son, who was given the name Ottokar) on him, in agreement with some barons. With such whisperings, the nobles made it with the easily flammable J. that Elisabeth had to leave the court and, separated from her children, move from Elbogen to Melnik. From that moment on there was a complete change in the king's manners and character; If he had been reckless before, he now listened more and more to the words of his barons, fell completely into the nets of Queen Mother Elizabeth and allowed himself to be led into all kinds of debauchery without in any way bothering about the management of state affairs. As a result his reputation sank, even abroad, and the greatest dissatisfaction arose among the two classes of citizens and the clergy, who had to bear all the burdens of the state by themselves; even some influential noblemen, such as Wilhelm Zajic, Peter v. Rosenberg and others took the side of the citizens. The citizens of Prague rose against the hated king and for the deeply insulted queen and elected six captains who were to teach the king about the state of the country by peaceful legal means and to induce him to escape the harmful influence of the barons. They were never allowed to admit that and Heinrich von Lipa presented this move by the Prague people to the king as an open outrage. On July 8, 1819, he appeared in front of Prague, into which city Elisabeth had also moved, following an invitation from the Prague citizens; but after only ten days of this strange war between the king and the queen a treaty was concluded, of which we know nothing more than that J. at least apparently reconciled himself with his wife and that the citizens of Prague had to pay considerable sums of money. A few months later J. won the Mark Budissin, which had previously come under Ottokar II to the Margrave Otto of Brandenburg and now by contract of September 22nd. 1319 he was awarded by Heinrich, Duke of Silesia and Lord von Jauer. King Ludwig confirmed this acquisition on September 13, 1320. While J. was fighting in Lusatia, he had to retreat from Friedrich von Oesterreich to Oberbaiern, where, at his request, J. sent Wilhelm Zajic to help him; in him, however, Queen Elisabeth was soon to lose her most loyal friend and her most reliable support, since he died of an arrow wound at Dachau, while Heinrich von Lipa was freed from his most powerful and dangerous rival. In the future J. gave him supreme power as often as he left Bohemia, just as he appointed him governor before the end of the same year when he was 28.December secretly left Prague and returned to the Rhineland and his county of Luxembourg. In Luxembourgish, while Johann was absent, the provincial administrator Heinrich v. Beffort the disputes over Damvillers and some other places with Gobert v. Apremont and his brother, the Bishop of Verdun, ended happily, but had also got into a bloody quarrel with Bishop Adolf of Liège, in which the northern part of the country was hard hit, after what retaliation - for the Luxembourgers had the Condroz region devastated in no less terrible ways - a two-year truce had been signed. On his return journey from Bohemia, J. met Baldwin and King Ludwig in Bingen and concluded a contract with both of them (February 22, 1320) for a sum of 35,000 marks which King Ludwig still owed him; at the king's request, Baldwin accepted him into the community of his imperial pledges until J. came into possession of Fürstenberg and Caub himself. From Bingen he traveled to Leuven, where (March 18) he took the oath of homage to Duke John of Brabant on account of Arlon and Laroche and from where he also visited the city of Antwerp. In May he was back in Luxembourg; before and after he showed himself incessantly endeavoring to increase the number of his feudal men, and as he constantly gave generously to the various monasteries and cities of his country, so this time Diekirch and kingmakers rejoiced in his special grace; both were surrounded by fortifications. - In the midst of this varied activity, two successive deaths struck him: on April 20, 1320 his son Ottukar died, on June 15 his patron Peter von Aspelt, Archbishop of Mainz, to whom he was a steadfast support, a loyal advisor and a true friend lost. Since the occupation of the so-done ore chair was of the greatest importance for the Bavarian-Luxembourgish as well as for the Austrian party, each tried to help a man devoted to her to this dignity. Ludwig and J. strove to raise Archbishop Baldwin to this seat, which was really chosen unanimously; Baldwin received the news of this near Strasbourg, on the Breusch, where he and his nephew J. had followed King Ludwig against the Dukes of Austria; however, it was not confirmed by the Pope, who rather appointed Mathias von Bucheck at Friedrich's request. King J. had returned from Alsace to Trier and his county, only to return to Bohemia towards the end of January. Here the peace had not been disturbed during Johann's absence and since this year was also characterized by great fertility, the people, who had been hard hit by then, regained hope. On the other hand, an event had occurred in Poland which a few years later almost embroiled in a protracted war. Wladislaw Lokotheo, Duke of Sandomiria, had submitted the whole Kingdom of Poland and, according to a papal authorization of January 20, 1320, had been crowned King of Poland by the Archbishop of Gniezno; However, J. also had the same title, albeit without being able to seriously consider restoring his rule over Poland. In Lokotheo a not to be despised enemy arose for J., while on the other side he lost a powerful ally, King Karl of Hungary, who had reestablished his earlier connections with Austria since the death of his wife Beatrix, Johann's sister. But never resting, J. now devised other plans to draw other powerful princes into his interests by marrying his children and his sister Maria. He offered his sister's hand to his old rival for the crown of Bohemia, Heinrich von Kärnthen; his eldest son Wenzel was supposed to have the only daughter Margarethe Maultasche of the old Duke Heinrich and at a meeting in Eger with King Ludwig he also arranged the engagement of his eldest daughter Margaretha with Duke Henrich von Niederbaiern, son of the titular king Otto of Hungary. Meanwhile, Maria refused to marry Heinrich von Kärnthen and protected religious vows, and none of the other marriages came about either. This time J. stayed in Bohemia for only a very short time; on June 23, 1321, after being there for a little over four months, he returned to Luxembourg after having appointed his brother-in-law, Duke Boleslaw of Liegnitz, as governor. At that time, when asked why he did not stay in his kingdom, he gave the well-known answer that he liked it best in his native land. In August we find him at Trier, in September at Mons, where he took the oath of homage to the Count of Hainaut for several counties that his father Henry VII had already taken over as a fiefdom. In November he was in France and donated a new altar in the castle chapel of Luxembourg at Cambrai on the 18th of that month. He also intervened in the dispute between the Bishop of Liège and the Count of Namur, decided (April 1, 1322) as arbitrator between Gerhard von Grandpré and the brothers Arnold and Gerhard von Blankenheim and reached an agreement on the same day with the Bishop and the Chapter of Verdun. In July we went to Bohemia again; no important events had occurred here; The chroniclers only know of a few deaths in the royal family, while on February 12, 1322 the queen recovered from her third son, who was called Johann Heinrich. However, while J. was still in his home country, he had received the unexpected news from the Bohemian rulers that Queen Elisabeth's natural brother, Johann, the royal chancellor and provost of Wysehrad, had initiated a conspiracy to expel him; Johann was therefore accused of high treason by the all too gullible king and, despite his innocence (the whole thing was only a slander of the barons who wanted to destroy the influence of the queen and her brother at all costs), sentenced to death; and when he had succeeded in escaping his imprisonment, the king withdrew all his benefices and gave them to his favorites. It is evident that under such circumstances a good relationship between the king and queen was out of the question; At the persuasion of her noble enemies, the characterless king stole her most important goods and transferred them and gave them away. So Elisabeth was forced by her husband to flee to the court of her future son-in-law in Bavaria, lived first in Landshut and later in Chamb, while the king came ever closer to his wife's personal enemy, the Queen of Grätz. Even now he was busy with new marriage plans: his sister Maria, whom he had betrothed to King Charles IV of France several months ago, left Prague on April 11, 1322 and went to Paris via Luxembourg, where she was on August 24 , after prior papal dispensation, Charles IV was solemnly wedded. On August 12, he engaged his eldest nine-year-old daughter Margaretha to the cousin of the bridegroom proposed the previous year, Heinrich, the son of Duke Stephan von Niederbaiern. His second daughter, the seven-year-old Jutta, was promised to the Margrave of Meissen and some time afterwards was brought to the Wartburg to be educated there; it was to the court of this prince to which Queen Elizabeth also went. After so J. had done everything to secure the continuation of his power, he pulled King Ludwig to the aid of his rivals, who had now brought all the horrors of the civil war over the empire for eight years. Friedrich had moved into a camp near Mühldorf am Inn; opposite him, on the other side of the river, Ludwig camped with his allies, including Johann and Balduin von Trier. A great battle was fought here on September 28th; J. was in command of the entire Bavarian army and King Ludwig owed the victory to his prudent orders. J. received appropriate rewards for this, among the prisoners left to him was Duke Heinrich von Oesterreich and he also received a large number of towns and castles as pledge for very substantial sums of money. Even before he left Ludwig, he concluded a protective and defensive alliance with Baldwin of Trier and the three dukes of Niederbaiern. | But even if Ludwig owed his success at Mühldorf largely to King J., he changed from now to his behavior towards the Luxembourgers entirely: after he took advantage of their good services, he no longer shied away from promoting the interests of his dynasty and should Johann's power over it also perish. On October 18th J. made his solemn entry into Prague, where he was received with great enthusiasm; five days later he received homage from the citizens of the town of Eger, which had been pledged to him, and returned to Luxembourg on November 11th. But even here he stayed only a very short time and then set out on a journey to Roc-Amadour in southern France, where he met Charles IV of France as agreed; The latter urgently advised him to reconcile himself with the dukes of Austria and to release the imprisoned Heinrich from his imprisonment, probably only with the intention of establishing contact with the powerful dynasty of the Habsburgs through Johann's mediation and thus making his way to the German throne level. It was here that the day was set for Queen Mary's coronation ceremony, which was celebrated on May 15th in the presence of her brother J. and her uncle Baldwin. J., like his father Henry VII, was very inclined to the French and liked to linger in Paris, at the splendid court of France; He also had his seven-year-old son Wenzel come there so that, as it was said, he would be brought up under the supervision of his sister, but rather out of fear that, with his constant absence from Bohemia, Wenzel might one day be dissatisfied with his dissatisfaction with the king's behavior Nobility to be raised to the throne. In the same year, on May 8 (or 15), 1323, Wenceslas, subsequently Charles IV, was married to Blanca, the daughter of Count Karl von Valois. Before J. returned to his county, he reached an agreement through Charles IV's mediation with Count Eduard von Bar on the ownership of the Mirvault and Moncy castles, for whose sake a war had been waged, albeit not very emphatic, since 1322. One of the conditions of the peace was that Edward's eldest son should be married to the eldest daughter of King John, that is, Jutta, the second eldest, since Margaretha was already married. An arbitration ruling by Charles IV on May 28th specified other conditions in greater detail, which, however, were not observed and in 1329 led to a new war. Towards the end of June 1323 J. returned to Luxembourg, visited, among other things, the Marienthal women's monastery, which had always been the lap child of the Luxembourg princes, and which had also been showered with good deeds by Johann's parents; the king's aunt Margaretha was abbess here and his sisters had also found refuge here for a long time. In the middle of July, J. started his return journey to Bohemia: on the 25th he made his entry into Prague. Queen Elisabeth, who was still living in exile and exposed to all kinds of privations, had in the meantime given birth to twins, Anna and Elisabeth, on March 27th. The bond that had chained Ludwig and Johann so tightly to one another until the battle of Mühldorf had since then loosened and the mutual friendship cooled completely; The tension was increased by the fact that King Ludwig married his daughter Mechtilde to the young Friedrich von Meissen, to whom Johann's daughter, Jutta, had been promised the previous year; that Jutta was sent back to her father without further ado and Ludwig bestowed the Mark Brandenburg on his eldest son Ludwig, as he had promised the same J. Ludwig gave the example so openly that each of the two princes only had to be concerned with his own advantage; J. therefore tried to reconcile himself with the Austrians, who had concluded an alliance with Charles of Hungary that was mainly directed against Bohemia, and on September 18, 1323, through Charles of Hungary's mediation, a settlement was actually made with Göding an der March , through which the Austrians renounced all claims to Bohemia and Moravia and also delivered the documents that the Bohemian estates had previously sent the Roman King Albrecht about the succession. J. returned to Prague via Brno; he stayed here barely the time necessary to collect a special tax, and on October 16th he hurried back to his county of Luxembourg. Bohemia was now completely orphaned; J. lived mostly outside the country and when he came, depending on his kingdom, it was either armaments for war against neighbors or relentlessly collecting money, which he wasted on senseless generosity and indulgence abroad. Queen Elisabeth still lived with her children at Chamb in Bavaria and even the head of the church, the Prague bishop Johann von Drazic, had been at the papal court in Avignon since 1318. In addition, the few crown estates that the king still owned were pledged one by one, and with them the offices, namely the district courts. So John's government was only a true anarchy, the likes of which Bohemia had perhaps not yet experienced, and all of this solely as a result of the reckless behavior of the prince. On the journey from Prague to Luxembourg, he met King Ludwig in Schwäbisch-Werd; however much the two of them had to reproach each other for, this time the break between the two was still prevented, since they still needed mutual support before hand, especially Ludwig, against whom his greatest opponent Pope Johann had opposed. Ludwig even conceded several advantages to J. Through Heinrich von Lipa the Younger, J. initiated negotiations with Heinrich von Kärnthen, who had still not given up his claims to Bohemia, negotiations that were interrupted by a train to the south of France against Toulouse. This mighty city had renounced obedience to Charles IV of France and J. was supposed to help subdue the rebels; with his brother-in-law and his sister, the queen, he entered the conquered city; Immediately afterwards, the death of his sister, who died on March 25, called him again to France. Only now could the negotiations with Heinrich von Kärnthen be brought to a conclusion; on April 2, 1324 Heinrich renounced all claims to Bohemia, but received 20,000 marks for the home tax of the Bohemian princess Anna, his first wife; Johann's son, Johann Heinrich, was to marry Heinrich's daughter Margaretha and receive Moravia, Troppau, Glatz and Budissin; Heinrich himself was to marry Johann's aunt Beatrix, daughter of Johann's sister Felicitas with Johann Tristan, Lord of Löwen and Gaesbeke. The first marriage actually came about later, not so the other, since Beatrix refused to take the old widower as husband; another bride for him was then found in Beatrix of Savoy, a relative of the Luxembourg house. While these negotiations were still in progress, J. bought all goods and rights to Damvillers and Estrey from the Benedictine abbey of Mettloch on May 24, 1324 for the sum of 15,500 pounds Turnosen, and immediately afterwards with Wilhelm of Holland against the Archbishop of Cologne in front of the Castle of Volmenstein and then to draw for the Count of Geldern against the Bishop of Munster. With his uncle Balduin, Duke Ferri of Lorraine and Count Eduard von Bar, after a preliminary consultation at Diedenhofen, he concluded an alliance against the city of Metz on August 23 at Remich on the Moselle, constantly without rest or rest each of the four princes brought more or less well-founded complaints. Metz was left to himself and could not hope for help from the Reich in view of the conflict between the German imperial princes. The attempts of the Metz citizens to get an amicable settlement found no result and after a last unsuccessful conversation in Pont-à