Pasteurization temperature mushroom, when to harvest
Mushroom calendar 2020: picking mushrooms by season - chanterelles, boletus & Co.
Depending on the weather, the mushroom season starts earlier or later. In our mushroom calendar you can see exactly which types of mushrooms you can collect at what time. There are also some varieties that you can harvest in winter. But be careful: it is important to remember that not all mushrooms are digestible.
As a rule, September and October are considered the main mushroom picking season. Mushroom lovers are also drawn to the forest from the end of July. When the weather is warm and humid, there is a real growth spurt for many edible mushrooms on many forest floors.
Likelihood of confusion
In general, the following applies: To boletus, bovist and almost every other edible mushroom there is a poisonous to highly poisonous counterpart that can be confusingly similar to the edible mushroom. Therefore, you should only harvest and eat mushrooms without expert help if you really know them well. This is the advice of the German Society for Mycology (DGfM).
You can find more about edible mushrooms and their dangerous doppelgangers here: Warning, poisonous mushrooms! These species are life-threatening
Mushroom calendar from August to November
The actual mushroom season begins in September, although many mushrooms, such as the bovist, can be found as early as August. Many different types of mushrooms, such as meadow mushrooms, forest mushrooms and aniseed mushrooms, are in season from late summer. But be careful: mushrooms are often confused with the highly poisonous and deadly cap mushrooms. The perl mushroom, which can only be consumed cooked, is very easily mistaken for the similar-looking but very poisonous panther mushroom.
In autumn, mushroom lovers also collect chestnuts, autumn trumpets, cranberries and, of course, porcini mushrooms and chanterelles. Smoky-leaved sulfur heads, honey mushrooms and stick sponges also belong to the edible mushrooms. However, these types of mushrooms are sometimes poisonous raw and can therefore only be eaten when cooked or well steamed.
Some species that were previously explicitly considered edible mushrooms are now discouraged. A good example of this is the green compact. It can cause muscle damage.
Pick mushrooms in winter too
With a little luck and weather permitting, you can also pick mushrooms in the forest between November and February. The winter mushrooms include, for example, the velvet foot root (Flamulina velutipes), the oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) or the coffee-brown fork funnel (Pseudoclitocybe cyathiformis).
The velvet foot rubble can grow up to ten centimeters, is brown and has a fleshy, tough, dark yellow hat. It tastes nutty. It often grows near deciduous trees. Since the velvet foot rubble grows as early as October, it can easily be confused with the poisonous gnawing (softwood hewing, Galerina marginata).
The oyster mushroom, also called veal mushroom, grows between November and January. His hat, which can reach a diameter of up to 15 centimeters, can have different colors: from yellow to brown. Gray coloring is also possible. The oyster mushroom grows on both dead wood and deciduous trees. The edible mushroom can be confused with the poisonous oyster mushroom.
Oyster mushroom: The oyster mushroom has a nutty taste. (Source: Metodi Popow / imago images)
The coffee-brown fork funnel is rather unknown in this country. This is mainly due to its taste: some consider it a good edible mushroom, others not tasty. The hat of the winter mushroom is brown and matt, but sometimes also shiny, and can be up to eight centimeters wide. In addition, it is often curled up. It grows in both beech and fir forests.
Coffee-brown fork funnel (Pseudoclitocybe cyathiformis): The winter mushroom is considered a delicacy in Greece and Bulgaria. (Source: imagebroker / imago images)
The Judas ear (Auricularia auricula-judae) also grows in winter. In this country it is also known as Chinese morel. His hat is brownish and can be up to ten centimeters wide. The taste of the Judas ear is nutty, but also very fleeting. You can find this winter mushroom mainly on juniper trees.
Judasohr: The winter mushroom is also known under the name ear flap mushroom or elderberry sponge. (Source: blickwinkel / imago images)
Types of mushrooms from March to July
You can collect edible mushrooms almost every month of the year. However, many of the "early mushrooms" do not offer the usual quality in terms of taste and nutritional value. March snail (caution, risk of confusion with the brick-red crack fungus), spruce cone turnips and mild pine cone turnips (caution, only to be distinguished from inedible bitter pine cone turnips by tasting) are, for example, species that can be found in the forest from the beginning of spring on the calendar. From April and May, different types of morel and the blistered mug can be found.
The porcini mushroom season begins in May. Chanterelles and parasols will follow from June. But be careful, with these mushrooms it depends on the correct processing. They can be partially toxic when raw.
Tips for collecting chanterelles
The best time to collect chanterelles depends primarily on the weather. In particularly mild weather, the first chanterelles sometimes even start growing as early as mid-June. This is the case when it rains a lot and the temperatures are warm and comfortable. If the temperatures drop or if it is dry for a long time, the season may not start until late summer.
Chanterelles grow near oak, spruce, fir or pine on moss-covered areas. They tend not to be found under bushes. Make sure that you do not tear out the chanterelles, but cut them close to the ground.
Do not collect all the chanterelles, leave some of them. This increases the chances of new chanterelles growing in the same place next year.
Since chanterelles are specially protected, you may only collect the mushrooms for your own use. The upper limit of up to two kilograms must not be exceeded.
Tips for collecting porcini mushrooms
Porcini mushrooms belong to the genus of thick boletus and are in season between June and October. The period is very long, which is partly due to the numerous different types of porcini mushrooms. The summer boletus (Boletus aestivalis) is the first of the boletus varieties to be seen. Other well-known types are
- the bronze bolete, also called black-capped boletus (Boletus aereus),
- the common boletus, also called male mushroom (Boletus edulis), as well
- the pine bolete, also called red-brown boletus (Boletus pinophilus).
The respective varieties require different conditions to grow. Most porcini mushrooms prefer acidic soils, as is the case in beech or spruce forests. But boletus mushrooms can also grow and thrive in coniferous forests.
A few years ago, the neurotoxin nicotine was found in some porcini mushrooms. Stiftung Warentest found that this is particularly the case with porcini mushrooms from China. In some samples the value of the plant protection product was low, in others it was strongly increased. It is therefore better to collect porcini mushrooms yourself or buy them from the market if you know exactly where they were collected.
Porcini mushrooms get their name because of their consistency. Their flesh or their fruiting body is very firm compared to other edible mushrooms.
Porcini mushrooms are not cut off, but twisted out. This helps, among other things, to correctly identify the fungus and to protect yourself from possible poisonous doppelgangers.
Important: only collect what you are sure to know
The DGfM warns on its website: "The most common cause of mushroom poisoning is mushrooms that are too old (...) or that have been stored too long or incorrectly." Consumption of raw and insufficiently steamed mushrooms can also have serious consequences. Therefore, pay attention to the correct storage and an appropriate preparation.
The following applies to collecting mushrooms: "Have your mushrooms checked for edibility only by certified mushroom experts from the German Society for Mycology (DGfM) and ask for his ID from the DGfM." For this purpose, the company offers a list of mushroom experts, which you can filter by zip code.
The basic rule is: when in doubt, it is better to leave a mushroom standing and do not take any risks!
Mushroom pickers start their search as early as sunrise. If you still want to find one or the other delicacy in the forest, you should also get up early and be there.
Before collecting, set the amount
When collecting forest mushrooms, be sure to observe the prescribed maximum amount. In Germany it is regulated depending on the federal state and is in most cases one kilo per person per day for personal use. This regulation is intended to protect the mushroom population in the forests and prevent commercial trade in mushrooms collected in the forest.
"Anyone who unauthorized dragging kilos of mushrooms out of the forest and is caught risking - according to current judgments - a hefty fine of up to 5,000 euros. But anyone who only collects a tasty side dish to the Sunday roast for private use and observes a few simple rules, need not be afraid, "emphasizes Michael Rolland, managing director of the Association of German Forest Owners Associations. V.
Please note that there is a general ban on collecting in public parks, nature reserves, national parks as well as on fenced forest areas and areas where wood is felled.
Mushroom calendar - an overview of the mushroom season
Hygrophorus marzuolus: The March snail is an edible mushroom. (Source: seraficus / Getty Images)
Strobilurus esculentus: The pine cone is an edible mushroom. (Source: Machacekcz / Getty Images)
Mild pine cones
Strobilurus stephanocystis: The mild pine cone is inedible. (Source: blickwinkel / imago images)
Morchella esculenta: Morchelles are among the edible mushrooms. (Source: blickwinkel / imago images)
Summer boletus: This boletus variety (Boletus aestivalis) is also known as oak boletus. (Source: Metodi Popow / imago images)
Coprinus comatus: Cuckoo mushrooms are edible mushrooms that do not have a very long shelf life and should be consumed immediately. (Source: imagebroker / imago images)
Kuehneromyces mutabilis: The stick sponge is an edible mushroom for mushroom connoisseurs. (Source: McPhoto / Pilsak / imago images)
Cantharellus cibarius: Chanterelles are an edible mushroom. (Source: alimdi / imago images)
Macrolepiota procera: Parasols, also called giant umbrella mushrooms, are large edible mushrooms. (Source: blickwinkel / imago images)
Boletus edulis: Porcini mushrooms are among the edible mushrooms. (Source: imagebroker / imago images)
Bottle dusting: Not all varieties are edible. Some bovists are poisonous. (Source: blickwinkel / imago images)
Agaricus campestris: Meadow mushrooms are edible mushrooms. (Source: blickwinkel / imago images)
Agaricus langei: Large forest mushroom. (Source: blickwinkel / imago images)
Agaricus arvensis: The white aniseed mushroom is an edible mushroom. (Source: blickwinkel / imago images)
Amanita rubescens: Pearl mushrooms must not be distorted raw. (Source: blickwinkel / imago images)
Imleria badia: The chestnut boletus is an edible mushroom. (Source: imagebroker / imago images)
Leccinum scabrum: The birch bolet is an edible mushroom. (Source: Belga / imago images)
Armillaria mellea: Honey yellow honey mushroom is edible braised or cooked. (Source: Harald Lange / imago images)
Craterellus cornucopioides: The autumn trumpet is an edible mushroom. (Source: blickwinkel / imago images)
Smoky-leaved sulfur head
Hypholoma capnoides: The smoky-leaved sulfur head is an edible mushroom. (Source: McPhoto / imago images)
Violet red chalk knight
Lepista nuda: The purple red chalk knight is an edible mushroom. (Source: blickwinkel / imago images)
In the event of mushroom poisoning, act immediately
- FrequentSymptomsare: severe abdominal pain, sudden nausea, vomiting, diarrhea.
- Symptoms appear from15 minutes to 16 hours after consumptionand are dependent on the type of toxin.
- If you are poisoned, see a doctor or call the doctor immediatelyPoison Control Centerat.
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