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DE19501112A1 - Formwork system - Google Patents

Formwork system

info

Publication number
DE19501112A1
DE19501112A1DE19501112ADE19501112ADE19501112A1DE 19501112 A1DE19501112 A1DE 19501112A1DE 19501112 ADE19501112 ADE 19501112ADE 19501112 ADE19501112 ADE 19501112ADE 19501112 A1DE19501112 A1DE 19501112A1
Authority
DE
Germany
Prior art keywords
formwork
insulation
heating
solid
construction
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Withdrawn
Application number
DE19501112A
Other languages
English (en)
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
ALTMANN WALDEMAR 39108 MAGDEBURG DE
FRANZ MICHAEL 39108 MAGDEBURG DE
Original assignee
ALTMANN WALDEMAR 39108 MAGDEBURG DE
FRANZ MICHAEL 39108 MAGDEBURG DE
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by ALTMANN WALDEMAR 39108 MAGDEBURG DE, FRANZ MICHAEL 39108 MAGDEBURG DEfiledCriticalALTMANN WALDEMAR 39108 MAGDEBURG DE
Priority to DE19501112ApriorityCriticalpatent / DE19501112A1 / de
Publication of DE19501112A1publicationCriticalpatent / DE19501112A1 / de
Withdrawnlegal-statusCriticalCurrent

Left

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  • 238000010438heat treatmentMethods0.000claimsabstractdescription63
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Classifications

    • F — MECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24-HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24D — DOMESTIC OR SPACE-HEATING SYSTEMS, e.g. CENTRAL HEATING SYSTEMS; DOMESTIC HOT-WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS; ELEMENTS OR COMPONENTS THEREFOR
    • F24D3 / 00 — Hot-water central heating systems
    • F24D3 / 12 — Tube and panel arrangements for ceiling, wall, or underfloor heating
    • F24D3 / 14 — Tube and panel arrangements for ceiling, wall, or underfloor heating incorporated in a ceiling, wall or floor
    • F24D3 / 141 — Tube mountings specially adapted therefor
    • F24D3 / 143 — Tube clips with barbed anchors
    • E — FIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04-BUILDING
    • E04B — GENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B2 / 00-Walls, e.g. partitions, for buildings; Wall construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted to walls
    • E04B2 / 84 — Walls made by casting, pouring, or tamping in situ
    • E04B2 / 86 — Walls made by casting, pouring, or tamping in situ made in permanent forms
    • E04B2 / 8635 — Walls made by casting, pouring, or tamping in situ made in permanent forms with ties attached to the inner faces of the forms
    • E — FIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04-BUILDING
    • E04B — GENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B2 / 00-Walls, e.g. partitions, for buildings; Wall construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted to walls
    • E04B2 / 84 — Walls made by casting, pouring, or tamping in situ
    • E04B2 / 86 — Walls made by casting, pouring, or tamping in situ made in permanent forms
    • E04B2 / 8652 — Walls made by casting, pouring, or tamping in situ made in permanent forms with ties located in the joints of the forms
    • F — MECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24-HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24D — DOMESTIC OR SPACE-HEATING SYSTEMS, e.g. CENTRAL HEATING SYSTEMS; DOMESTIC HOT-WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS; ELEMENTS OR COMPONENTS THEREFOR
    • F24D3 / 00 — Hot-water central heating systems
    • F24D3 / 12 — Tube and panel arrangements for ceiling, wall, or underfloor heating
    • F24D3 / 14 — Tube and panel arrangements for ceiling, wall, or underfloor heating incorporated in a ceiling, wall or floor
    • F24D3 / 141 — Tube mountings specially adapted therefor
    • F24D3 / 142 — Tube mountings specially adapted therefor integrated in prefab construction elements
    • Y — GENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02 — TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02B — CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO BUILDINGS, e.g. HOUSING, HOUSE APPLIANCES OR RELATED END-USER APPLICATIONS
    • Y02B30 / 00 — Energy efficient heating, ventilation or air conditioning [HVAC]

Description

Formwork systems for the production of concrete and mortar walls are known in all areas of structural application. Reusable or lost formwork is used.
While in the past such formwork systems were mainly used in structural engineering (e.g. bridge construction) or large-scale construction (e.g. industrial and commercial buildings, large residential buildings), they were used in the area of ​​home construction (single and multi-family houses, row houses, chain houses , Semi-detached houses), the stone-on-stone construction method as the most common traditional solid construction application.
However, one has tried again and again, with success, to counter the conventional brick-on-stone construction method with more rational formwork construction systems. It has now been two decades since a formwork system based on chamber blocks made of chip concrete (Isospan) was introduced and established very well in the market for home construction. There are other chamber stones made of concrete, lightweight concrete, aerated concrete, pumice stone.
Along with the wave of energy saving in the home sector that began a decade ago, however, the aforementioned chamber stones lost their importance again, since no acceptable K values ​​could be achieved with the filling material concrete.
However, some manufacturers of chamber blocks then switched to inserting rigid foam or mineral fiber insulation in the individual chambers and were thus able to significantly improve the K values ​​of their shuttering blocks. However, this application was costly and entirely manual work in production. Although the demand for even better K values ​​became more and more relevant, the manufacturers of the chamber stones with additional insulation have been able to secure their market share to this day.
However, the private home industry was increasingly confronted with the fact that prefabricated houses based on timber frame constructions received more and more market growth and solid construction took away market shares. In addition, because of their wall constructions, prefabricated houses have always been energy-saving houses and far exceeded the requirements of the thermal insulation ordinances.
Solid construction followed when the first chamber blocks based on EPS polystyrene rigid foam (Styrofoam) were developed for concrete filling (Styrofoam formwork blocks). In the most common use of these formwork blocks, namely the outer and inner shell each 5 cm thick, a remarkable K value of 0.28 was achieved despite the concrete filling.
At the same time, a construction application was born that was designed for the building owner's own contribution: the shuttering blocks were easy to attach to storey-high using studded connections. The floor-to-ceiling backfilling, however, still causes problems today, as concrete breakouts occur again and again and walls are not exactly straight.
Another disadvantage arises to this day in the fact that the production of Styrofoam formwork blocks is extremely costly, since it is machine goods tied to a molding tool with a long service life in production.
Another disadvantage of the Styrofoam shuttering blocks resulted from the fact that the connecting webs were usually also made of Styrofoam, so that instead of a solid wall, only a concrete skeleton structure was created. Although this did not cause any static problems, the consumer increasingly developed a prejudice against the fact that everywhere, since the webs had to be arranged densely due to the formwork pressure of the filling concrete, continuous styrofoam points in the outer wall were very easy to find and pierce.
Today only a few system manufacturers use styrofoam connecting webs, but metal webs or plastic webs have been used. Now there is indeed a continuous solid wall, but when these webs are used, production has again become considerably more expensive, so that the consumer is increasingly blocking the prices demanded today.
It must be said: The manufacture of such formwork blocks as automatic goods is time-consuming and expensive and, moreover, unnecessary. It would be better to produce rigid foam formwork from cut insulation panels, since this material can be produced much more efficiently and cost-effectively by foaming large blocks. However, the construction of the connecting webs would be difficult to solve here.
An outsider solution to this problem consisted in a manufacturer producing connecting webs from ultra-light luff pore concrete and gluing them into the insulation shells using PUR glue. This is how the first large-area Styrofoam formwork element based on cut polystyrene insulation panels was created. The manufacturing process, on the other hand, proved to be so complex that a price advantage over the automatic goods could not be achieved.
The biggest problem and also the reason why formwork systems based on Styrofoam (polystyrene) could not prevail is that both shells of the shuttering block are made of insulating material (polystyrene), so that the inner surface of the wall facing the room is also made of Styrofoam .
Many speak here of the insulating cage.
In fact, one cannot objectively justify this fact of the interior insulation shell. Everyone understands that a house should have good insulation on the outside walls. But even the layman does not understand that the isolation is divided (half outside, half inside). However, the shuttering block is made of Styrofoam through and through and so this problem of internal insulation cannot be changed with the usual Styrofoam shuttering elements due to the system.
This condition is certainly detrimental to the indoor climate. A room climate in which an average relative humidity of 50% is not exceeded is recommended for residential medical purposes. For this, however, it is necessary that absorbent outer walls are available in order to absorb excess air moisture in order to slowly transport it to the outside via the diffusion path or to temporarily store it. When using styrofoam shells on both sides, only the interior plaster is available to absorb excess moisture, which must be regarded as inadequate.
Formwork systems for erecting external walls for residential houses would therefore have to be designed completely differently:
  • 1. The formwork would have to consist of formwork made of different materials (outer shell, inner shell) according to the purpose:
  • a) On the outside (namely towards the weather) the formwork should be made of insulating material, when using EPS polystyrene rigid foam (Styrofoam), it is recommended to have a thickness of 20 cm so that a K value in the direction of 0.15 can be achieved. In addition, the insulation boarding should have the property of repelling moisture, but allowing vapor diffusion (breathability). This requirement is met in the classic way by EPS polystyrene rigid foam, which is also produced in an environmentally friendly way without the use of FGKW and has no harmful emissions for the room residents, and is also approved under food law.
  • b) On the inside (namely towards the room) the formwork would have to consist of a solid wall material to absorb the excess air humidity. An inner insulation shell made of 3 to 5 cm thick flat aerated concrete slabs would be particularly suitable, as this material, thanks to its fine-pored structure, absorbs excess moisture like a sponge and slowly transports it to the outside.
  • c) Instead of expensive and cumbersome automated goods, the outer insulating shell should consist of cut large block panels (for example, 5 m in length) to ensure quick and efficient use.
  • 2.For this purpose, there should be a fastening and anchoring system for the large insulation panels used, so that a complete and storey-high outer wall floor plan can initially be built from insulation walls in a self-stable and wind-resistant manner, in order to make these insulation walls in addition to their main function as permanent insulation boarding as a mounting wall to accommodate all of the building services (heating , Sanitary, electrical, ventilation) can be used as a rapid assembly installation system.
  • 3. Since the solid wall of a shuttering system is created by liquid potting, it is more than obvious to create the optimal surface heating system, namely wall surface heating, in a simple manner and without significant effort and expense.
Building brick-on-brick without extreme additional insulation is no longer good enough. To keep an eye on formwork systems for residential buildings only as a quick-build system would mean to give away the obvious technological advantages of an extended system application.
Building today does not only mean practicing energy saving, but also taking personal environmental responsibility into account on a global scale.
Climate researchers paint an extremely bleak picture for the future. They predict floods, droughts, crop failures and famines. The cause of this forecast is the so-called greenhouse effect, which is causing our globe to heat up more and more due to the increase in emissions. The danger of the polar ice caps melting away is glaring, and scientists foresee shifts in climatic zones. That is why everyone bears a personal responsibility to act in the interests of the environment.
This starts with building your own house. Because the largest CO² emissions do not come from industry and trade, but arise from the sum total of private households by burning solid, liquid or gaseous substances for heating and hot water preparation.
In the case of new buildings, just one insulation measure, such as that used in the renovation of old buildings, is by no means sufficient.
The new thermal insulation ordinance on 1.1.1995 forces all house manufacturers to practice increased thermal insulation. A rethinking in a conservative industry often only takes place under legal pressure. But, according to our opinion, the new thermal insulation ordinance is still too inconsistent, the legislature should and could have made the thermal insulation regulations even more drastic.
The requirement in today's residential construction is to integrate energy optimization and healthy living into a holistic building system.
The invention on which this patent application is based is based in particular on this requirement.
The invention specified in claim 1 is based on the problem of producing an inherently stable formwork system from two different material shells (outer shell = insulating material, inner shell = solid wall material) as permanent formwork.
This problem is solved by the features listed in claim 1.
The essential part of the solution to the problem in claim 1 consists in the invention of a special connecting web (Fig. 11, Fig. 12), which connects the two different material shells to a solid and inherently stable formwork construction.
For this purpose, the connecting web is designed on one side with a 90 ° edging and a sharp point so that it can be pierced into the system insulation board with the pressure of the thumb (to be placed at an angle) (Fig. 13a). While piercing the system insulation board at an angle, the connecting web must be bent up by hand and brought into a horizontal position (Fig. 13b). Then the connecting bar is brought into the final position with another vertical thumb pressure (Fig. 13c).
By bending up and pressing down the connecting web during the piercing process, the insulation material is compressed at the puncture point, and the web is jammed in the insulation material.
In this way, an inherently stable anchorage is created that later, after the entire formwork has been completed, the storey-high backfilling with concrete or filler mortar is possible (taking into account more detailed implementation regulations). The formwork pressure is fully absorbed.
On the opposite side, the connecting web is represented by a 90 ° bent tip (Fig. 11, Fig. 12) designed so that it can be hammered into the solid shell (e.g. aerated concrete, pumice stone, lightweight concrete, clay stone) (Fig. 13d).
An alternative version of the connecting web has a hole instead of the impact point so that the connecting web can be anchored in a very hard solid shell (e.g. concrete, sand-lime brick) using a steel nail or screw anchoring.
Any variable wall thickness can be produced by different production lengths of the connecting web.