How is the transport connected with physical experiments?

Institute for Materials Science

February 2021Best Student Presentation Award for Astita Dubey

At the ferroelectric conference “Fundamental Physics of Ferroelectrics 2021” our research scholar Astita Dubey received the best student presentation award for her contribution “A-site Doped BiFe0.95Mn0.05O3 Nanoparticles for the Photocatalytic Applications ”. Ms. Astita Dubey received a 150 dollar certificate from the organizing committee of the conference.

Bismuth Ferrite (BFO) Nanoparticles (NPs) not only display multiferroic properties at room temperature (RT) but they are also good visible light absorbers with a narrow band gap of 2.18 eV. BFO is also known for its large spontaneous ferroelectric polarization at RT yielding a large pyroelectric coefficient. All these properties together can be utilized in photocatalysis, photovoltaics and data storage.

Ms. Astita Dubey has explored the Bi site cation doping effect on BiFe0.95Mn0.05O3 NPs. An enhanced photocatalytic efficiency for the degradation of organic dyes in water was achieved via tuning the band gap, increased surface area of ​​NPs and exploiting ferroelectric behavior.

More details can be found on the poster in the university building V15 S05 next to V15S05D08. For online view, you can visit on this website

We all warmly congratulate Ms. Astita Dubey on the award and best wishes for her research!

July 2020Master's thesis in materials science wins innovation award

The Sparkasse am Niederrhein has been awarding the Engineering Science Innovation Prize for excellent and application-related work from the Faculty of Engineering at the University of Duisburg-Essen for several decades. For this purpose, a committee selects the best dissertation and the best master's thesis from numerous submissions every year. The prize for the best master's thesis for 2019 was given to Mr. Felix Paul.

His thesis entitled "Physical properties of granular frazil ice" deals with the physical properties of frazil ice in the Antarctic. Frazil ice is the first ice that is created in the Antarctic in the annual freezing process. The Frazil ice concentration is the basis for the agglomeration of the ice crystals to form ice floes and the subsequent complete coverage of the Southern Ocean with a closed ice sheet. This in turn has a major impact on the global radiation balance and global warming. Frazil ice is therefore of great importance for the global climate. “The award is given for really exciting work. I thank Mr. Felix Paul, Dr.-Ing. Tommy Mielke, Dr.-Ing. Carina Nisters and Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Jörg Schröder for the great work during the expedition. “, Prof. Lupascu thanked the winner after the award ceremony. The winner himself was also overjoyed: “I would like to thank the Sparkasse am Niederrhein and the Society for the Promotion of Engineering Sciences for awarding the award. A big thank you also goes to my supervisors, without them the work would not have been possible in this scope and quality.

March 2020Kick-Off in the DFG Priority Program 2196

Perovskite Semiconductors: From fundamental properties to devices

Since the start of this year the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft has been funding the Priority Program SPP 2196, Perovskite semiconductors: From fundamental properties to devices. It addresses the investigation of the new class of solar light absorber materials which promise a solar cell type of much reduced production and energy cost. The program focuses on the fundamental working mechanisms of the perovskite materials, in particular structural, optical, electronic, and magnetic properties and, most importantly, their correlations. The consortium consists of 21 projects and unites about 100 researchers throughout the country.

Our institute takes part in the SPP with the project “Dielectric Effects in Hybrid Perovskites: Impact on Charge Carriers and Anisotropy” jointly with Prof. Niels Benson (Institute of Technology for Nanostructures, UDE). The aim of this project is to understand the underlying transport and screening mechanisms of the hybrid perovskite absorber materials using ferroelectric and dielectric studies as well as selective transport property testing.

The kick-off meeting took place in Potsdam on 12th-13th of March 2020 and marked the beginning of the Priority Program with many fruitful discussions about future work and collaborations between the different groups. General information on the program can be found here ( A first glance at the research that will be conducted at the University of Duisburg-Essen is given here (; /doi/10.1063/1.5090947).


The Hyperpolaron (right): A combined charge species of a polaron (left) and a micellon (center) structure found in perovskite solar cell materials (MA = Methylammonium ion).

September 2019Recycling plastic in road construction

Plastic material can be found almost everywhere these days and the recycling of this material is one of the issues of our time. One recycling approach is to block plastic in streets. But is this really forward-looking or just a postponement of our problems? The question of whether roads made of plastic can really solve our disposal problem is examined in an article published in Zeit-Online. For this purpose, various experts were interviewed, including our employee Dr.-Ing. Tommy Mielke heard. However, one thing is definitely clear: extensive research must be carried out before one can answer the question of whether it really makes sense to block plastic in streets!

Scientists on their way into the ice of the Antarctic - SCALE Winter Cruise 2019A journey into the Antarctic sea ice

In July and August 2019, four scientists from the University of Duisburg-Essen went on an expedition to the Southern Ocean and the Marginal Ice Zone (MIZ) of the Antarctic for three weeks. They were together with 100 scientists from 13 nations on the South African research ship S.A. Agulhas II to investigate the properties of the sea ice in numerous experiments.

The Sea-Ice Team on the Winter Cruise 2019 with a small pancake ice floe
the heli deck. © Sea Ice Team, SCALE Winter Cruise 2019.

The scientists Dr.-Ing. Tommy Mielke and Felix Paul, B.Sc. from the Institute for Materials Science, as well as Prof. Jörg Schröder and Dr.-Ing. Carina Nisters from the Institute of Mechanics were part of an interdisciplinary project, funded by the SA National Antarctic Project (Southern Ocean Seasonal Experiment - SCALE), to research the conditions in the Antarctic region, especially during the winter months.

The polar regions of the earth are covered by sea ice, which, driven by atmospheric movements, wave movements and ocean currents, is exposed to constant dynamics. The sea ice plays an important role in determining the polar climate and it is assumed that it also has a decisive influence on the world climate. The forces within the agglomerate of the ice lead to the formation of so-called “pancake” ice cream. Exploring this region is an important task for many natural and engineering disciplines.

The cruise's multidisciplinary research project was led by Associate Professor Marcello Vichi, Director of the Marine Research Institute at the University of Cape Town (UCT), and comprised 17 different research groups with different research interests in the fields of biology, chemistry and engineering. One of the research teams, which also included the four scientists from the University of Duisburg-Essen, was the Sea-Ice Team under the direction of Associate Professor Sebastian Skatulla (UCT). During the expedition, the Sea-Ice Group was able to successfully extract drill cores from both consolidated ice and “pancake” ice. With the help of these drill cores, physical, chemical, biological and mechanical properties of the ice could be determined. Among other things, strength tests, tests on thermal conductivity and salt content were carried out. In addition, samples of the so-called Frazil ice were taken with an apparatus specially designed for this expedition by the Institute for Materials Science. Frazil ice is a mixture of ocean salt water and the first crystalline structures of ice between the ice floes. In addition to the salt content and the temperature, the viscosity in particular was measured for this mixture. The Sea-Ice team also included electrical engineers from UCT, who used buoys to measure the movements of the ice floes. Another project included the observation of sea ice movements to define the limits of the MIZ.

You can find more information about the project on the Sea-Ice project page.

To the Sea-Ice project page

UCT report on Winter Cruise 2019.

August 2019Relaxor-project started



In the DFG and ANR funded project “RelaxSolaire” scientists of the Institute of Material Science of the University Duisburg-Essen and scientists of the Institute of Structure Properties and Modeling of Solids of CentraleSupélec are working together to investigate the application of ferroelectric relaxors as absorber material for solar cells.

In the last years power conversion efficiencies in solar cells with perovskite absorbers have reached up to 23%. To broaden the field of absorber materials, ferroelectric relaxors are in the focus of this research. The ferroelectric layer provides a polarization-induced internal electric field which can help in separating the photo-excited carriers. The photovoltaic is not limited to the band gap of the material. These properties could lead to an optimized device with a better performance.


July 2019Finalist of Best Student Paper Award for Astita Dubey

At the 2019 IEEE ISAF-ICE-EMF-IWPM-PFM Joint Conference in Lausanne, Switzerland, our research scholar Astita Dubey received the diploma of finalist of best student paper award for her 'Tuning Optical, Structural and Multiferroic Properties of Bismuth Ferrite ( BiFeO3) Nanoparticles by co-doping with Ba and Mn ’.

Bismuth Ferrite (BFO) Nanoparticles are single phase multiferroic materials exhibit magnetoelectric properties at room temperature with a narrow band gap 2.18 eV. Due to these features it can potentially be utilized in the avenues of data storage, sensors and photo catalysts.

As a part of her Ph.D. research, Ms. Astita Dubey has explored the Ba and Mn co-doping effect on BFO Nanoparticles. The enhancement of ferromagnetic properties with retaining ferroelectric behavior as well as tuning of band gap was explored via Ba and Mn co-doping into the BFO lattice system.

For more details, the poster hangs in the showcase in V15 S05, University building V15.

We congratulate Ms. Astita Dubey on her achievement and best wishes for her upcoming research!

March 2019Prof. Qiming Zhang (Pennsylvania State University) wins Humboldt Award

Prof. Qiming Zhang from Pennsylvania State University is a world leading material scientist in electro-active polymers. His research has been fostering the efficiency of ferroelectric polymers offering very high voltage resistance, high dielectric constant and exceptionally high strains, ideal for “soft” actuation in muscle replacement or active little robots of the size of insects. High density energy storage materials are his second specialty.

Prof. Qiming Zhang is hosted by Professor Doru C. Lupascu at the Institute for Materials Science of the University of Duisburg-Essen.

February 2019 PhD Kevin Voges M.Sc.

Mr. Kevin Voges M.Sc., research assistant at the Institute for Materials Science at the University of Duisburg-Essen, successfully completed his doctorate on February 14, 2019 on the subject of "Production of thermal insulation materials from polyvinyl alcohol composites using freeze casting" with his disputation consisting of a lecture and subsequent examination completed.
In his work, Mr. Voges was able to show that polymer foams that are produced using the freeze-cast process have significantly higher strengths than conventional foams with comparably low thermal conductivities. In freeze casting, saturated water is frozen in a directional manner. This creates pore channels made of ice and a framework made of polymer. With suitable aftertreatment, very stable anisotropic foams can be produced in this way.

January 2019Engineer's Night of the Faculty of Engineering

This year the Institute for Materials Science took part in the Engineers Night in Duisburg for the first time. The institute presented its main research areas to the visitors.
In addition to citizens interested in technology, there were also schoolchildren who were interested in studying among the visitors. In addition to the typical building themes of insulation, concrete and asphalt, the themes solar and ferroika were also shown. Among other things, laboratory-made solar cells, crystals, asphalt and concrete specimens were presented.
In addition, the functionality of porous asphalt was demonstrated on a structure specially made for the event.

November 2018Dr. Maryam Khazaee successfully Completes her PhD on Solar Cells

Dr. Maryam Khazaee has successfully completed her PhD thesis on “Materials for Halide-Based Thin Film Solar Cells”. During her thesis Dr. Khazaee has shown that a number of Silver-Bismuth-Iodide composites can serve as solar cell absorbers. In particular she has shown that vapor deposition techniques allow to prepare dense and effective solar cell absorber layers. Presently, the search for replacement of the toxic lead in the so successful Methylammonium Lead Halides perovskite solar cell absorbers drives the research in other compounds of the halides that can potentially be less toxic and better withstand the commonly encountered fast deterioration of cell performance in this material family.

October 201810 years of materials science

October 1st, 2018 marked the anniversary of the change from the Institute for Building Physics and Materials Science to the Institute for Materials Science. In these ten exciting years there have been many changes in which people from over 20 nations have come and gone. Much has been achieved, some not, things have happened that one expected, but also many that one did not expect.
Everyone who made these 10 years possible, designed and accompanied were invited on October 12, 2018. After a brief overview of previous and future research at the institute and a subsequent laboratory tour, the event ended with a cozy get-together with food, beer and wine.

September 2018 Best Poster Prize for Maksim O. Karabasov

At the Thermag VIII (International Conference on Caloric Cooling) conference in Darmstadt, our master's student Maksim O. Karabasov received the Best Poster Prize for his contribution “Anisotropy of the electrocaloric effect in Barium Titanate”. The electrocaloric effect is seen as an environmentally friendly alternative to conventional cooling systems. As part of his master's thesis, Mr. Karabasov examined the influence of the electric field direction on the magnitude of the electrocaloric effect in barium titanate single crystals. He has shown that the effect changes its sign for certain field directions, which could be promising for applications.

If you are interested, you can look at the poster in the university building V15.
It hangs in the showcase in V15 L01, L-aisle.

We all warmly congratulate Mr. Karabasov on the award!

September 2018 PhD Tommy Mielke M.Sc.

Mr. Tommy Mielke M.Sc., research assistant at the Institute for Materials Science at the University of Duisburg-Essen, successfully completed his doctorate on September 17, 2018 on the subject of "Influence of the bulk density of asphalt on the temperature behavior of an asphalt body" with his disputation consisting of a lecture and subsequent examination completed.

November 2017 Ferroic Functional Materials

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jörg Schröder (Institute for Mechanics) and Prof. Dr. rer. nat. habil. As part of their collaboration on functional ferroic materials, Doru C. Lupascu have published a book entitled "Ferroic Functional Materials - Experiment, Modeling and Simulation". The book is published by Springer-Verlag and describes the theory and experiments on ferroelectric, ferromagnetic, ferroelastic and magnetoelectric materials.

You can find the link to the book here.

May 2017 Why are perovskite solar cell materials so good?

Many different types of solar cells have been devised in the last decades. The fastest development so far has been observed with the perovskite solar cell absorbers. Within a few years, power conversion efficiencies have gone up to 22% for a single cell. Lifetimes up to one year have been confirmed.

One of the most puzzling effects in these material is the low impact of defects on electron transport. Apparently, the number of defects can be a multitude of those permitted in classical semiconductors and electron mobility remains practically unaffected.

In a paper just published in Advanced Energy Materials, we have been able to explain this unusual behavior by dielectric effects. A particular mechanism of charge screening appears to be the fundamental reason why these materials behave so exceptionally good.

For a detailed read please click here.

October 2016Sparkasse Prize for Dr. Danka Dittmer-Gobeljic

Every year the Sparkasse Duisburg honors the best theses from the University of Duisburg-Essen with a prize. This year four doctorates and five theses were honored. Danka Dittmer-Gobeljic won over the jury with her dissertation on the subject of “Polar Microstructure and Nanoscale Electromechanical Behavior of Lead-Free Piezoelectric Ceramics”. In the eyes of the jurors, she delivered a brilliant performance.

Miss Dr. In her dissertation, Dittmer-Gobeljic dealt with local order and disorder in a special class of ferroelectric materials. These "relaxors" offer particularly large piezoelectric coefficients for the application. They are particularly important for “smart material” applications in adaptive systems. So far, the microscopic mechanisms that lead to the particularly large coefficient were largely not understood. Ms. Dittmer-Gobeljic made important contributions from the analysis of domain images of piezo force microscopy on the nanoscale and enabled a better understanding.

We congratulate you all on the award!

This thesis was funded by the European Union in the Initial Training Network (ITN) NANOMOTION contract number FP7-People-2011-ITN-290158.

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July 2016BMBF project "EkoMarI" at CERN

Besides nuclear physics, CERN also offers a number of facilities for solid state and materials research. Among these, ISOLDE * offers the use of short to medium lived isotopes for solid state research. In the new BMBF-project EkoMarl “Verbundprojekt 05K2016 - EkoMarI: Researching condensed matter with radioactive ion beams”, the BMBF supports solid state research at ISOLDE through running the solid state activity at ISOLDE and improving the relevant equipment for solid state research at CERN. EkoMarl unites activity from UDE with Göttingen University and Ilmenau University of Technology.

The Institute for Materials Science at UDE coordinates the solid state activity at ISOLDE via the project EkoMarl.

* The On-Line Isotope Mass Separator, also known as the ISOLDE Radioactive Ion Beam Facility, is a facility located at CERN on the PS Booster. It started operating in 1967 and was rebuilt twice with major upgrades in 1974 and 1992.

ISOLDE (Isotope Separator On Line DEtector) is dedicated to producing radioactive nuclei for a number of applications covering nuclear, atomic, molecular and solid-state physics, but also biophysics and astrophysics. The large variety of available species allows the systematic study of atomic and nuclear properties and exotic decays far from the line of stability. As of 2006, more than 60 physics experiments are active there.

Radioactive nuclei are produced at ISOLDE by impinging a high energy beam of protons on a stationary target. There are a number of target materials depending on the desired final species. Collisions between the proton beam and the target produce a variety of fragments, which are extracted from a very hot target as a vapor, which is then selectively ionized by, eg, laser ion sources, accelerated to low 60keV energy and finally, magnetically mass separated to yield the desired element / isotope. The time required (few ms) for extraction places a lower limit on the half-life of isotopes which can be produced by this method. Once extracted, the isotopes are collected to be used off-line or directed either to one of several detector on-line stations. Alternatively, mainly for nuclear physics purposes, the isotopes can be then accelerated at the new High-ISOLDE accelerator complex to attain higher energies (several MeV / nucleon).

The facility is operated by the ISOLDE Collaboration comprising CERN and 9 European countries.

Further information on the work at ISOLDE can be found here.

June 2016 Gottschalk Diederich Baedeker Prize for PD Dr. Shvartsman

With the Gottschalk-Diederich-Baedeker Prize in 2016, the outstanding achievements of our employee PD Dr. Vladimir V. Shvartsman, who teaches and researches at the University of Duisburg-Essen. The solid-state physicist is an internationally recognized expert in atomic force microscopy.

We all warmly congratulate him on the award!

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May 2016 Best Poster Award for the electrocaloric cooling effects

At the scientific conference entitled "First International Symposium on Dielectric Materials and Applications" (ISyDMA'2016) in Kenitra (Morocco), our colleague Mehmet Sanlialp was able to present his contribution on the subject of "Direct Measurements of the Electrocaloric Effect in Lead-free Ferroelectric Ceramics "score. He received the award for the best poster from the organizing committee of the conference and was thus able to stand out among more than 200 participants.

If you are interested, you can look at the poster in the university building V15. It hangs in the showcase next to Mr Sanlialp's office (V15 S05 D86).

We all warmly congratulate him on the award!

March 2016Green electricity with PeroBoost

Scientists from the Institute for Materials Science and the Institute for Nano Structure Technology at the University of Duisburg-Essen, together with project partners from the Department of Chemistry at the University of Cologne, the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems Gelsenkirchen and the industrial partners (AIXTRON SE, Eight 19 Deutschland GmbH, LUNOVO Integrated Laser Solution GmbH, SOLUXX GmbH, and ZOEK GmbH) tackled the "PeroBoost" project. The project is funded by the European Regional Development Fund, as part of the lead market competition New materials from the state of North Rhine-Westphalia (EFRE.NRW) funded until 2019.

Lead-free absorber materials based on organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites are being developed under the focus on "New materials to support the energy transition", which should lead to competitive levels of efficiency when used in perovskite solar cells. Various process technologies are being developed and optimized for the economic production of cells with lifetimes of many years.

September 2015 BMBF project "Thermostop" started

The scientists from the Institute for Materials Science at the University of DuE and a project partner from industry have now started their cooperation on the subject of "Thermostop". The project is financially supported by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and should run until 2018.

The aim of this project is to produce a composite from various nanoparticles that will serve as thermal insulation for buildings. This material should have the insulating properties of commercially available pore-based thermal insulation (e.g. glass wool or PU foam) and at the same time be mechanically resilient.

Due to the small size of the nanoparticles, the material contains many grain boundaries at which the heat carriers are scattered and partially reflected. In this way, the heat transfer can be minimized and the strength increased due to the dense structure.

August 2015Research of the caloric cooling effects goes into the 2nd round

The DFG research project SPP-1599-2 “Caloric Effects in Ferroic Materials” was approved and research in this area will continue for a further three years as part of the project. The aim of the project is to show whether and how effective the cooling effects are in ferroic materials.

In the first phase of the project, two measuring chambers were successfully developed here at the institute, with which electrocaloric measurements can be carried out on the one hand isothermally and on the other hand adiabatically (without heat exchange with the environment). In the second phase, interesting material systems with high caloric effectiveness are explored.

June 2015Concrete floats?

This was certainly the most frequently asked question that the students of the concrete canoe team at the University of Duisburg-Essen have been asked in recent months. After successfully participating in the 15th Betonkau regatta from 19.-20. June 2015 it can be answered with a loud "YES".

The project "Concrete Canoe 2015" by the civil engineers from Essen started under the direction of Prof. Doru Lupascu from the Institute for Materials Science in September 2014. Tommy Mielke and Kevin Voges then took over responsibility for the team, who recruited a team of 24 students.

The questions the students had to ask themselves were simple: “What shape does a concrete canoe have to be in order for it to float?” And “How does the concrete have to be made up so that it lasts?” In 2009 and 2011 already had a team of the University of Duisburg-Essen successfully participated in concrete canoe regattas under the direction of the Institute for Solid Construction. Of course, the first information was obtained there and then planning could begin.

After a long planning phase (we are in the public service), the subsequent construction of the formwork, the compilation of a concrete recipe, concreting, stripping and design, the regatta in Brandenburg an der Havel took place in June.

There the concrete canoe "Kanuni" experienced a successful maiden voyage to thunderous applause from the audience. It took part in a total of 4 races in which it did not even capsize. The UDE team ended up in the middle of the field: "We had a lot of fun, learned a lot, made good contacts and will definitely go back again."

March 2015Cooling with the solid state?

An answer will be given to this question in the near future by making use of so-called caloric effects in solid materials.

The caloric effect is the phenomenon that a material heats up when exposed to a strong external magnetic / electrical / elastic field and cools down when the external field is removed again. Since the cooler is in the solid state, this technology is intended to completely eliminate the need for refrigerants with a high global warming potential. With the properties of quiet and space-saving cooling effects, these materials with caloric effects are also on the wish list of manufacturers of computer chips.

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November 2014Tisch wins Design Prize Handwerk NRW

The previously presented table made of ultra-high-strength concrete (UHPC), which was designed by the two students Niklas Markloff and Daniel Rauch from the "Industrial Design" department at Folkwang University and produced in cooperation with the Institute for Materials Science at the University of DUE, is in January at the “Designer Towers-Passagen 2014, Interior Design Week” trade fair in Cologne and met with great interest in terms of both the design and the extraordinary innovative material. At the end of October, the table was awarded a special prize at the "DesignTalente Handwerk NRW 2014" event in the Chamber of Crafts in Cologne.

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October 2014Magnetic order in multiferroic nanoparticles

In the only room temperature multiferroic BiFeO3 there is a cycloid order of the magnetic moments. Does this also apply to nanoparticles whose size is smaller than the helix length? An answer can be found in a recent article in the magazine "Nano Letters".
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This work was created within the framework of a CENIDE collaboration between the materials science department of the civil engineering department in Essen and the working group "Magnetic Nanostructures" in physics in Duisburg.

September 201415th German concrete canoe regatta

The institutes of materials science, road construction, solid construction and structural engineering will participate in a collaboration in the 15th German concrete canoe regatta on June 19 and 20, 2015. In a concrete boat regatta, vocational schools, technical colleges, universities and other institutions compete against each other. The task to be solved is to build a concrete canoe and then take part in a race. Master's students of civil engineering can also use this action as project work for 12 CP credit!

Interested students who would like to work on the project, please contact us by December 01, 2014 at Tommy Mielke M.Sc. at the Institute for Road Construction (V15 S05 D81) at. You are welcome to drop by if you have any further questions about the process.

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June 2014Designer furniture made of ultra-high-strength concrete

As part of a study project within the Design and Industrial Design department, the students Niklas Markloff and Daniel Rauch designed a filigree table top, which, consisting of asymmetrical cross braces, was to be concreted in one step. Due to the high demands on the surface quality and the rather complicated formwork construction, different concrete mixes with different largest grains and a very high proportion of binder were initially designed and examined for their suitability at the Chair of Materials Science. The aim of the work should be an almost pore-free surface and a deep black shade of the concrete that is as uniform as possible.

After several test mixtures, a self-compacting, ultra-high-strength concrete formulation without coarser aggregates with a high proportion of soot and iron oxide was selected, which could be produced and stripped without any problems. The result is a rich black, pore-free surface with true-to-shape edges and corners, without any micro-cracks, as can sometimes occur with such dense concrete. The table was exhibited in January at the “Designer Towers-Passagen 2014, Interior Design Week” trade fair in Cologne and met with great interest in terms of both the design and the unusual material.

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April 2014 Easter holiday care

As part of the Easter holiday care, the group of children from Uni Due was our guest and had the opportunity to get an insight into our concrete laboratory. Equipped with smocks, protective goggles and gloves, the young researchers went to work. First, we showed the children a strength test that gave them an insight into the stability of concrete. She was particularly impressed that a concrete sample (15 cm cube) can only be destroyed when it weighs approx. 85 cars.

Afterwards everyone was allowed to lend a hand and pour freshly mixed concrete into prepared heart shapes after they had got to know all the components of the concrete in detail beforehand. Each got its own shape for filling. After we took the concrete hearts out of the formwork after 24 hours, the children were able to pick up their self-made hearts the next day. The hearts were safely packed in bags and every child could take theirs with them.

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