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FORMAT statement



Associates formats with variables.
Valid:in a DATA step or PROC step
Category:information
Type:Declarative

FORMATvariable-1 <. . . variable-n> ;
FORMATvariable-1 <. . . variable-n> format ;
FORMATvariable-1 <. . . variable-n> formatvariable-1 <. . . variable-n> format;

Argument

variable

names one or more variables for SAS to associate with a format. You must specify at least one variable.

Tip: To disassociate a format from a variable, use the variable in a FORMAT statement without specifying a format in a DATA step or in PROC DATASETS. In a DATA step, place this FORMAT statement after the SET statement. See Removing a Format. You can also use PROC DATASETS.
format

specifies the format that is listed for writing the values ​​of the variables.

Tip: Formats that are associated with variables by using a FORMAT statement behave like formats that are used with a colon modifier in a subsequent PUT statement. For details on using a colon modifier, see PUT Statement, List.
See also:Formats by category
DEFAULT = default format

specifies a temporary default format for displaying the values ​​of variables that are not listed in the FORMAT statement. These default formats apply only to the current DATA step; they are not permanently associated with variables in the output data set.

A DEFAULT = format specification applies to

  • variables that are not named in a FORMAT or ATTRIB statement

  • variables that are not permanently associated with a format within a SAS data set

  • variables that are not written with the explicit use of a format.

Default: If you omit DEFAULT =, SAS uses BESTw. as the default numeric format and $ w. as the default character format.
Restriction: Use this option only in a DATA step.
Tip: A DEFAULT = specification can occur anywhere in a FORMAT statement. It can specify either a numeric default, a character default, or both.
Featured in:Assigning Formats and Defaults

The FORMAT statement can use standard SAS formats or user-written formats that have been previously defined in PROC FORMAT. A single FORMAT statement can associate the same format with several variables, or it can associate different formats with different variables. If a variable appears in multiple FORMAT statements, SAS uses the format that is assigned last.

You use a FORMAT statement in the DATA step to permanently associate a format with a variable. SAS changes the descriptor information of the SAS data set that contains the variable. You can use a FORMAT statement in some PROC steps, but the rules are different. For more information, see Base SAS Procedures Guide.

Both the ATTRIB and FORMAT statements can associate formats with variables, and both statements can change the format that is associated with a variable. You can use the FORMAT statement in PROC DATASETS to change or remove the format that is associated with a variable. You can also associate, change, or disassociate formats and variables in existing SAS data sets through the windowing environment.


Example 1: Assigning Formats and Defaults

This example uses a FORMAT statement to assign formats and default formats for numeric and character variables. The default formats are not associated with variables in the data set but affect how the PUT statement writes the variables in the current DATA step.

data tstfmt; format W $ char3. Y 10.3 default = 8.2 $ char8 .; W = 'Good morning.'; X = 12.1; Y = 13.2; Z = 'Howdy-doody'; put W / X / Y / Z; run; proc contents data = tstfmt; run; proc print data = tstfmt; run;

The following output shows a partial listing from PROC CONTENTS, as well as the report that PROC PRINT generates.

Partial listing from PROC CONTENTS and the PROC PRINT Report

The SAS System 3 CONTENTS PROCEDURE ----- Alphabetic List of Variables and Attributes ----- # Variable Type Len Pos Format ---------------------- ------------------------ 1 W Char 3 16 $ CHAR3. 3 X num 8 8 2 Y num 8 0 10.3 4 Z Char 11 19

PROC PRINT Report

The SAS System 4 OBS W Y X Z 1 Goo 13,200 12.1 Howdy-doody

The default formats apply to variables X and Z while the assigned formats apply to the variables W and Y.

The PUT statement produces this result:

---- + ---- 1 ---- + ---- 2 Goo 12.10 13.200 Howdy-do

Example 2: Associating Multiple Variables with a Single Format

This example uses the FORMAT statement to assign a single format to multiple variables.

data report; input Item $ 1-6 Material $ 8-14 Investment 16-22 Profit 24-31; format Item Material $ upcase9. Investment Profit dollar15.2; datalines; shirts cotton 2256354 83952175 ties silk 498678 2349615 suits silk 9482146 69839563 belts leather 7693 14893 shoes leather 7936712 22964; run; options pageno = 1 nodate ls = 80 ps = 64; proc print data = report; title 'Profit Summary: Kellam Manufacturing Company'; run;

Results from Associating Multiple Variables with a Single Format

Profit Summary: Kellam Manufacturing Company 1 Obs Item Material Investment Profit 1 SHIRTS COTTON $ 2,256,354.00 $ 83,952,175.00 2 TIES SILK $ 498,678.00 $ 2,349,615.00 3 SUITS SILK $ 9,482,146.00 $ 69,839,563.00 4 BELTS LEATHER $ 7,693.00 $ 14,893.00 5 SHOES LEATHER. $ 7,936,712.00 $ 7,936,712.00 $ 7,936,712.00

Example 3: Removing a Format

This example disassociates an existing format from a variable in a SAS data set. The order of the FORMAT and the SET statements is important.

data rtest; set rtest; format x; run;

Copyright © 2011 by SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA. All rights reserved.