4 rust-red potatoes correspond to the number of cups

Using German Synon

by Orosz Kati

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Using German synonyms

Companion titles to Using German Synonyms Using German A Guide to Contemporary Usage martin durrell [isbn 0 521 42077 6 hardback] [isbn 0 521 31556 5 paperback] Using French Synonyms r. e. batchelor and m. h. offord [isbn 0 521 37277 1 hardback] [isbn 0 521 37878 8 paperback] Using Spanish Synonyms r. e. batchelor [isbn 0 521 44160 9 hardback] [isbn 0 521 44694 5 paperback] Using Italian synonyms howard moss and giovanna motta [isbn 0 521 47506 6 hardback] [isbn 0 521 47573 2 paperback] Using French Vocabulary jean h. duffy [isbn 0 521 57040 9 hardback] [isbn 0 521 57851 5 paperback] Using French A Guide to Contemporary Usage, third edition r. e. batchelor and m. h. offord [isbn 0 521 64177 2 hardback] [isbn 0 521 64593 X paperback] Using Spanish A Guide to Contemporary Usage r. e. batchelor and c. j. pountain [isbn 0 521 42123 3 hardback] [isbn 0 521 26987 3 paperback] Using Russian A Guide to Contemporary Usage derek offord [isbn 0 521 45130 2 hardback] [isbn 0 521 45760 2 paperback] French for Marketing Using French in Media and Communications r. e. batchelor and m. chebli-saadi [isbn 0 521 58500 7 hardback] [isbn 0 521 58535 X paperback] Further titles in preparation

Using German synonyms MARTIN DURRELL Henry Simon Professor of German, University of Manchester

           The Pitt Building, Trumpington Street, Cambridge, United Kingdom    The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 2RU, UK 40 West 20th Street, New York, NY 10011-4211, USA 477 Williamstown Road, Port Melbourne, VIC 3207, Australia Ruiz de Alarcón 13, 28014 Madrid, Spain Dock House, The Waterfront, Cape Town 8001, South Africa http: // www. Cambridge. org First published in printed format ISBN 0-521-46552-4 hardback ISBN 0-521-46954-6 paperback ISBN 0-511-03774-0 eBook Cambridge University Press 2004 2000 (Adobe Reader) ©

Contents Acknowledgments vi Abbreviations vii Introduction ix GermanSynonyms 1 Bibliography 255 Index of English words 259 Index of German words 290 v

Acknowledgments I must acknowledge a debt of gratitude to a large number of people without whose willing assistance this book would not have been possible. My colleague Dr. Wiebke Brockhaus read and commented on the whole manuscript and the work has bene®tted enormously from her advice and many helpful suggestions. Thomas Despositos, Frank Munique and Petra Storjohann and a large number of friends and colleagues in Germany, Austria and Switzerland, provided much material and were kind enough to answer many questions on individual points of usage. The Austrian Institute in London and the Swiss Consulate in Manchester furnished me with information on vocabulary relating to the institutions of those countries. Much of the raw material was furnished, often unwittingly, by English and German students in Manchester over the years, whose queries and problems have provided constant stimulation. I am immensely grateful, too, to all colleagues at the Institut für Deutsche Sprache in Mannheim, where I spent several weeks collecting and checking much of the material which has found its way into this book. This visit was generously supported by the German Academic Exchange Service. Most of the examples illustrating usage were taken or adapted from the huge volume of corpus data available in Mannheim, which was also invaluable in checking collocation frequencies. Last, but not least, I must express my deep gratitude to Dr Kate Brett at Cambridge University Press for her continued help, encouragement and patience during the preparation and editing of the book. vi

Abbreviations adj. decl. adjectival declension attrib. attribute AU Austrian usage CH Swiss usage comp. comparative dat dative case esp. especially sth. ®gurative (ly) hum. humorous inf in®nitive sb somebody sb somebody sb somebody literally N North German usage NE Northeast German usage NW Northwest German usage occ. occasionally o. s. oneself part. participle pej. pejorative (ly) pl. plural pred. predicate (-ively) R1 colloquial spoken register R2 register neutral R3 formal written register R3a literary register R3b non-literary register S South German usage sb somebody SE Southeast German usage sth something superl. superlative SW Southwest German usage swh somewhere vii

Introduction 1 The purpose of this book Mastering vocabulary tends to be an underestimated skill in learning a foreign language. From the ®rst stages in learning a new language we are aware that it has unfamiliar sounds which we have to pronounce reasonably accurately if we are to make ourselves understood, and the grammatical structures can immediately present us with quite unfamiliar concepts ± like noun gender, which is found in nearly all European and many non-European languages, but not in English. However, especially at the outset, we often think of vocabulary mainly in terms of simply learning the foreign equivalents for familiar terms like clock, cook, live or street, because we tend to assume that there is a one-to-one correspondence in terms of meaning between the words of the foreign language and the words of our own. However, just as each language has its own individual set of sounds, and its own individual grammar, so the structure of its vocabulary, too, is unique. It is not just that the words are different, but they re¯ect a different perspective on the world. Each language gives meaning to the world by dividing up the things, events and ideas in it in different ways through its vocabulary, categorizing them in other terms and drawing different distinctions. This means, ®rst, that another language may have words which have no precise equivalent in our own ± English, notoriously, has no word which corresponds precisely to German gemuÈtlich, and German lacks a straightforward equivalent for the English noun mind. Secondly, though , and more importantly, it means that there are very few simple one-to-one correspondences between the words of the foreign language and the words of our own. Learning the vocabulary of a foreign language is not just a matter of learning individual words; we have to learn how to operate with a completely different set of meanings and concepts. It is common, for example, for one language to make distinctions which another does not have, and it is quite natural for the learner to fail to pick these up initially. Germans learning English who simply learn that the English word for Uhr is clock can quite easily come out with a sentence like I regret that I cannot tell you the time because I am not wearing a clock, as German, unlike English, does not differentiate between ix

`timepieces worn on the person (i.e. watches) and` other timepieces (i.e. clocks). And if English learners are told that the German for live is Leben, they may well then say Ich lebe in der Frankfurter Straûe, which will sound odd, since German, unlike everyday English, normally distinguishes between Leben (ie `be alive, exist) and living (ie `dwell) ± for details see the entry living. In all languages ​​most words, especially the most frequent ones, cover a wide range of possible related senses (this is known as polysemy), and it is very rare for apparently equivalent words in different languages ​​to cover exactly the same range. German cooking, for example, can be used to refer to `boiling (in general, of liquids, eg das Wasser kocht), to` cooking by boiling (eg I have boiled an egg), or to `cooking in general (eg Mein Brother likes to cook). This covers at least the range of senses of the two English words cook and boil (with the result that unwary Germans may say something like Do not cook this shirt in English), but other equivalents (eg simmer) may be used in other contexts ( for details see the entry cooking). Given this, learners of a foreign language need to learn not just the individual words of the language, but the semantic distinctions between words of related meaning so that they can use the appropriate one for effective communication. Conventional bilingual dictionaries are often little help here, as they frequently give a fairly undifferentiated list of possible German equivalents for a particular English word without providing much detail on how those German equivalents are actually used or the types of context where one might be preferred to another . Considerations of space are, of course, a factor here, and larger dictionaries are able to give more information than smaller ones. Nevertheless, it is never the prime purpose of a bilingual dictionary to provide detailed information on semantic distinctions, and the conventional organization of such dictionaries, with words listed alphabetically, militates against this. Dictionaries of synonyms, on the other hand, aim to group words of related meanings together so that the user can select an appropriate word for a context. If they are designed for native speakers, they often simply provide lists of words under various headings from which native speakers can select what they consider to be the right word using their intuition and knowledge of the language. This is the case with the familiar Roget s Thesaurus for English or the DUDEN: Sinn- und sachverwandte WoÈrter (1986) for German. But a dictionary of synonyms for foreign learners will need to explain in more detail, preferably with examples, the semantic distinctions between the words in each group. This is an essential tool in learning a foreign language. Such a dictionary enables learners to see quickly what words are available to express particular ideas and helps them more ef®ciently than any other kind of reference work to choose the one which best expresses what they want to say. It also assists the actual process of learning the foreign language, since it has been shown that vocabulary is very effectively acquired and retained in semantically related sets. This also has the advantage that if x Introduction

You have learned the words together, the semantic distinctions between them are easier to recall. This book, then, aims to provide detailed information on a large number of sets of semantically related German words for more advanced learners whose ®rst language is English, in order to help them extend and improve their command of the vocabulary of German. Naturally, the vocabulary is huge and diffuse and no such work could hope to cover all such sets. Ultimately, too, each word in German has its individual characteristics, although we shall see some of the general principles on which the vocabulary is structured later in this introduction. A choice was made of those more frequent sets of words which experience in teaching German at all levels has shown to present most differences from English, i. e. where the range of meanings of the German words does not correspond to that of the nearest English equivalents. However, unlike in other dictionaries of German synonyms for English learners (Beaton 1996 and Farrell 1977), each entry here consists of groups of words which are semantically related in German (and thus given under a German head-word) rather than consisting primarily of sets of German translation equivalents for speci®c English words. This follows the principle established in the earlier books in this series, Using French Synonyms (Batchelor and Offord 1993) and Using Spanish Synonyms (Batchelor 1994). It also re¯ects the diminishing importance of translation in modern foreign language teaching and seeks to stress the importance for foreign learners of understanding how the vocabulary of German is structured in its own individual way and thereby to help them to acquire those distinctions in meaning which are relevant for German. 2 Understanding the organization of the vocabulary 2. 1 Semantic ®elds It has long been accepted that the vocabulary (often referred to as the lexis) of each language does not just consist of many thousands of isolated unrelated elements (words), but that it has a coherent, if complex structure. In particular, the meaning of an individual word is determined in part by other words of similar meaning which exist in the language. If the English word street does not mean quite the same as German Straûe, this is because we make a difference, which does not exist in the same way in German, between street and road, so that what we call a road is usually different from what we call a street. There is a close semantic relationship between these words, they are used in similar contexts and refer to similar things, but they are distinct, in that street usually refers to a thoroughfare between buildings in a built-up area but a road to a highway between built-up areas. We can extend this set by more words with similar meanings, such as alley, lane, avenue, highway, thoroughfare, all of which have slight semantic distinctions in their turn Introduction xi

from street and road. And we can establish a similar set for German, which will include (at least) Allee, Autobahn, Fahrbahn, Gasse ,pfad, Straûe and Weg, all of which are semantically distinct from one another ± and these distinctions are in most cases quite different from the ones which apply in English (for details see the entry street). Such sets of words with relatively slight semantic distinctions between them which refer to similar things and are used in similar contexts are known as semantic ®elds or lexical ®elds. Characteristically, if not always, they are words between which the speaker has a choice at a particular point in the chain of speech, so that, for instance, many of the German words given in the last paragraph could be used in a sentence like Sie is on this / this. . . drove or we slowly walked the. . . along. In this way, each of the entries in this book is a semantic ®eld, and what we aim to do is explain those slight differences of meaning which distinguish the words in each ®eld from each other. Semantic ®elds, however, are not closed sets. Except in some special cases (like color adjectives), their boundaries are rarely clear-cut and one semantic ®eld will often overlap with another or shade into it. In such cases a decision often had to be taken as to what could be considered the core words in a particular semantic ®eld and to exclude others which seemed less central in order not to overburden the number of words grouped under a particular headword. In general, a maximum of twenty words is dealt with in any individual entry. In many instances, cross-references are then given to the relevant entries for closely related semantic ®elds, e. G. from see to see and vice-versa. Also, the range of meaning of some words is such that they participate in more than one semantic ®eld; to meet, for example, is to be found here under to hit as well as to meet. 2.2 Words, lexemes and lexical items Up to now, we have been referring to the `words of a language. However, this term is notoriously ambiguous. In a certain sense, made, made and made are all `words of German. But, equally, these are all forms of the `wordmachen, in another sense of` word, i. e. the basic form which is listed in a dictionary. In German, conventionally, this is the in®nitive form for verbs, though we could equally well think of it in terms of a root form like MACH. To avoid this ambiguity, the term word-form is often used to refer to this ®rst sense of `word, and lexeme, or lexical item, for the second sense, and it is these latter which we are dealing with in this book. In practice, `lexical item is perhaps the preferable term, because the entries in this book do not only consist of individual words, but very often also of phrases and idioms which have the function of single entities, like in order (under ordnen) or get in the hair (and fight). For convenience and simplicity, we shall continue to use the term `word, but it should always be understood in the sense of` lexical item. xii Introduction

2. 3 Synonymy The title of this book, like that of all `dictionaries of synonyms is rather misleading. In the strictest sense of the term synonymy (or absolute synonymy) synonyms are words which could be exchanged for each other in any context without any distinction in meaning whatsoever. In practice, it is very rare to ®nd sets of words in any language which are absolute synonyms by this de®nition. As is clear from the above paragraph on semantic ®elds, the entries in this book consist not of absolute synonyms, but of words whose meanings are so closely related that we can consider them to belong to the same semantic ®eld, like German narrow and narrow (see under wide / narrow). Nevertheless, their meanings are distinct in most contexts, and they are thus not absolute synonyms, but near-synonyms. A single semantic ®eld, though, typically contains many words whose range of meaning overlaps to a certain extent. In such cases, we often ®nd that one word can be substituted for the other in some contexts without producing an appreciable difference in meaning, whereas there will be other contexts where the distinction in meaning between them is clear, or where one can be used and not the other. Thus, although the distinction between Leben and Wohnen mentioned above (see under Leben) is quite clear in most contexts, and we must say I live in Frankfurter Straûe and not I live in Frankfurter Straûe, there are some contexts where the distinction between `be alive and` dwell is unimportant or irrelevant, and either can be used without a clear difference in meaning. This is, for example, the case with Leben and Wohnen when a general area rather than a particular location is referred to, as, for instance, in Wir Wohnen / Leben auf dem Lande. Such instances of overlap are very common between words of similar meaning; this is known as partial synonymy. Many words which appear to have identical meanings are not absolute synonyms because their usage is different, in that they are typical of more colloquial or more formal language, or of one part of the German-speaking world rather than another. Such cases are explained in section 3 below, under register and regionalism. 2.4 Sense relations Although the semantic distinctions between words in a semantic ®eld can often be individual and speci®c to the particular words involved, there are a number of more general sense relations which are of immense importance in the organization of the lexis as a whole and which can be found within many semantic fields. antonymy It may appear paradoxical, but one of the closest relationships holding between words within a semantic ®eld is that of oppositeness of meaning, or antonymy. This aspect of semantic structure is familiar to Introduction xiii

everyone through pairs of adjectives like large / small or long / short. A few entries in this book deal speci®cally with ®elds consisting primarily of such pairs, because the meanings of the German words involved differ from their nearest English equivalents and are best understood speci®cally through the relationship of antonymy. This is particularly the case with the pairs width / narrow and width / narrow, which are treated under width / narrow. But the relationship is important in many entries, e. G. under bad, where the difference between bad and schlimm in German becomes clear when it is realized that only bad, but not schlimm, is an antonym of gut. This means that things which are bad could be good under the right conditions ± so that we can talk about a bad essay. Things that are schlimm are inherently bad and cannot be good under any circumstances, so that we must talk about a bad accident or a bad mistake, not * a bad accident. A further type of antonymy is converseness. This is a kind of `mirror-image relationship and can best be illustrated by pairs of verbs like buy and sell, where one, e. G. Johann sold the moped to Marie is the converse of the other, e. G. Marie bought the moped from Johann (see buy and sell). In a number of cases English and German differ in how they express converseness, with one of the languages ​​having separate verbs for each side of the action whereas the other uses the same verb for both sides. Thus, German uses leihen for both lend and borrow, as in He lent me the money and I lent the book from him (see leihen), whilst English uses rent for both lend and borrow, she leased the apartment to Erich but Erich rented the apartment from her (see rent). hyponymy Many semantic ®elds contain a word (or words) with a more general meaning and a number of words whose meaning is more speci®c. Thus, die is the general word in German for `die, whilst other words, such as erfrieren, verdursten and starve denote various ways of dying, i. e. `die of cold,` die of thirst, `die of hunger (see die). These more speci®c words are known as `hyponyms of the more general word and are said to stand in a relationship of hyponymy to it ± typically a` kind of or `sort of relationship. It is quite common for two languages ​​to differ quite markedly in how they structure their vocabulary in this way. In English, we have a general word (usually called a superordinate term) put, and a number of words which express various ways of putting things in places, i. e. hang, lay, stand, stick, etc. In German, though, there is no superordinate term in this semantic ®eld, and we always have to make a choice of the appropriate one from the speci®c terms hang, set, plug, places, etc. (see places). English learners thus need to be aware that there is no direct equivalent for the English verb put, and that they need to make clear in every context how something is being `put somewhere. On the other hand, languages ​​may lack speci®c hyponyms for a superordinate xiv Introduction

term. English lacks single words to express speci®c ways of dying, and instead uses phrases, like die of cold, die of thirst, etc. The result is that English users frequently fail to use the speci®c hyponyms in German where they are appropriate and overuse the superordinate term. It is well known that compound words are a characteristic feature of German, but it is important to be aware that most compound words are hyponyms of the head-word, i. e. the word which forms the last element of the compound. Thus, briefcase, wallet, shopping bag, handbag, travel bag, etc. are all types (i.e. hyponyms) of bag (see bag). Realizing this semantic aspect of German word-formation and being able to use it effectively is a vital way of extending command of the lexis of German, and many entries in this book show examples of how English learners can express themselves more precisely in German by using compounds. collocation Many words can be used in almost any appropriate context ± the adjective gut, for example, can be used with many nouns. Typically, though, there are also many words whose use is limited to certain contexts, i. e. Verbs which can only be used with certain classes of nouns (or even an individual noun) as subject or object, or adjectives which can only be used with a certain restricted class or group of nouns. In English, for example, we can usually only talk about a nugget of gold, or a clot of blood. In such instances we say that these words are only used in collocation with certain other words, or that they have collocation restrictions. Collocation restrictions can vary significantly between languages. In some cases, the foreign language lacks a restriction which is present in one s own. German, for example, does not have restricted words like nugget and clot, but uses the more general word Klumpen `lump and talks about a lump of gold just as it talks about a lump of coal or a lump of butter. On the other hand, the foreign language may have restrictions which are unknown in English. In German, for instance, essen is used only of human beings, and fressen of animals, whereas both eat in English (see essen). In English we can pour both liquids and granular materials (like sand), whereas in German we can use gieûen only for liquids, and other words, such as streuen, have to be used for sand, etc. (see gieûen). And whereas the most usual equivalent for spread (out) is spread, spread is used of legs, ®ngers and toes (see spread). Learning about collocation restrictions is an essential part of learning how to use a foreign language effectively, especially at more advanced levels. At the most general level, it is always important to ®nd the right word for the context in order to be able to say what we mean ef®ciently, and a major aim of this book is to help the English-speaking learner do this in German. But although collocation restrictions can seem frustratingly arbitrary at times, they can be of immense help to foreign learners when they realize that it means that the choice of one word in the chain of speech very often determines the next one ± in other words Introduction xv

that words always tend to keep the same company. For this reason, all the entries in this book give full details about collocation restrictions and care has been taken to select examples of usage which illustrate typical contexts and collocations. valency Different verbs need different elements to make a grammatical sentence. The verb haben, for example, needs three: a subject (in the nominative), a direct object (in the accusative) and an indirect object (in the dative), e. G. Yesterday she gave the book to her brother. Other verbs, like telephoning, only need one element, i. e. a subject, e. G. I've just been on the phone. Very many verbs, though, like suggest, need two, i. e. a subject and a direct object, e. G. She hit the ball, and a large number, like waiting, have a subject and a phrase with a particular preposition, e. G. She didn't wait for me, where wait for corresponds to English wait for. The elements a verb needs to form a grammatical sentence are called the complements of the verb, and the type and number of complements required by a particular verb so that a grammatical sentence can be constructed with it is known as the valency of the verb. Verb valency can involve signi®cant differences between English and German. First of all, German shows the link between the complements and the verb (e.g. what is the subject or direct object of the verb) through the use of the various cases. In English, nouns do not in¯ect to show case, and the relationship of the complements to the verb is indicated by their position, with the subject, for instance, always coming immediately before the main verb. This means that it is vital for English learners of German to learn the valency of each verb, i. e. the construction used with it, in order to be able to use the verb in context. In practice this means that the learner should always learn German verbs in typical sentences containing them, and for this reason all verbs dealt with in this book are given with an indication of their valency. Secondly, German verbs tend to be more restricted in their valency than English ones, so that a particular German verb may correspond to a particular English verb in certain constructions only. For instance, many English verbs, like leave or change, can be used as transitive verbs (i.e. with a subject and a direct object) or as intransitive verbs (i.e. with only a subject and no direct object). Thus, we can say, in English, She left the village and She has changed her appearance (using leave or change transitively), as well as She left and She has changed (using leave or change intransitively). This is often not possible in German, and we have to use different verbs or different constructions to re¯ect the transitive and intransitive uses of these English verbs. For leave is the usual equivalent for the transitive use, e. G. She has left the village, but leaving or leaving is needed for the intransitive, e. G. She left or She left (see leave and go away). For change, and similarly with many other verbs, a transitive verb (in this case veraÈndern) corresponds to the English transitive use, e. G. It has its appearance. Xvi Introduction

changed, but the related re¯exive verb (here change) is used for the intransitive, e. G. It has changed (see change). In practice, it will be found that a large number of the differences in usage between the German verbs treated in this book are, strictly speaking, due less to differences in meaning than to differences in valency. Finally, a number of verbs are used in different constructions (i.e. with a different valency) with different meanings. For example, hold, used intransitively, means `stop, e. G. The train stops (see stop). Used transitively, though, it means `hold or` keep, e. G. He kept his word (see keep). In such cases, each different valency with a distinct meaning is listed separately in this book, sometimes, as in the case of hold, under different head-words (with cross-references as appropriate) because the distinct meanings belong to different semantic ®elds . 3 Variation and the vocabulary of German No language is completely uniform and unvarying. There is immense variation in German depending on the individual speaker and the situation in which the language is being used. Choice of vocabulary can be in¯uenced by what the language is being used for and where in the German-speaking countries the speaker comes from. This kind of variation can be initially confusing and frustrating for the foreign learner, who may ®nd using a particular word in the wrong situation (what Germans call a Stilbruch) makes people smile, or is told that a particular expression is not said `here , possibly with the implication that it is not very good German. One of the aims of this book is to inform Englishspeaking learners about such variation in German so that they can ®nd the appropriate word for the particular situation. We can usefully distinguish two kinds of variation: that which depends on the use to which the language is being put, and that which depends on the users, i. e. the area they come from or the social group to which they belong. 3. 1 Register: variation according to use People express themselves in different ways, using different vocabulary when they use language for different purposes. The choice of word can depend, for example, on whether the context is formal or informal, whether one is writing or speaking, and on who one is addressing. Such differences are known as differences of register, and the vocabulary of German is rich in these. For example, to express the notion of `receive, one might use kriegen in everyday informal speech, but one would avoid this word in writing. A more neutral term is received, which can be used in almost any context. On the other hand, received or received are normally only employed in rather formal written language and can sound very stilted or affected (or at best out of place) in speech (see haben). In this book we are only concerned with register variation as it affects Introduction xvii

the lexis. In order to communicate effectively in a foreign language the learner has to learn which words are appropriate in which situations, not least because using the wrong ones in the wrong place can sound comical, pompous, or even rude. It is a major aim of this book to make English-speaking learners aware of register variation in German so that they can use vocabulary appropriate to the situation, and most of the semantic ®elds treated here have examples of words which are restricted in their usage to particular registers. Following the model established in Using German (Durrell 1992), the register of the words dealt with in the entries in this book is indicated where necessary by using a set of labels which divide the scale of register in German into three broad headings as follows: R1: The register of casual colloquial speech. It is used between equals who know each other quite well to discuss everyday topics, and it is the natural mode of speech for most Germans in informal situations. A large number of words, like kriegen, are characteristic of this register, but most Germans will avoid them in writing as too colloquial or `slangy. There is also a fondness for exaggeration, as shown by the many words corresponding to English terribly or awfully listed under terrible, and often a lack of precision in the vocabulary, with words of more general meaning being used rather than more speci®c terms, for example think or know for remember. A simple word may be also used rather than a more speci®c compound, for example Laden rather than Shutter or Shutter (see Curtain). This register has a wide range, from a socially perfectly acceptable conversational language to gross vulgarisms, which are indicated here by the label R1 *. Words designated by this are generally thought of as offensive and the foreign learner is best advised simply to note them and to avoid using them. R2: Essentially, this is a label for words which are relatively neutral in terms of register and can be used equally well in colloquial spoken language as in formal writing. In practice, most words in German, and most words treated in this book, fall under this heading, so that any word not given a marking for register here should be taken as belonging to this category as it is not speci®c to a particular register. R3: This is the most formal register of German. It is characteristic, ®rst and foremost, of the written language, and many words speci®c to it are rarely used in speech, especially in casual everyday usage. Typically, when we are writing we have time to be more careful in our choice of words and observe ®ne distinctions of meaning than when we are speaking. This means that many semantic ®elds treated in this book have a good number of words speci®c to this register which exhibit distinctions of meaning which are ignored in casual speech. It is useful to note two major types within this register, differentiated as follows: R3a: The literary language as established and coded over the last xviii Introduction

two centuries and still typical of creative writing, even popular ®ction. It can have a rather archaic or scholarly ring to it, but it has very high prestige, and mastering it is considered the mark of a good education. Indeed, many Germans still think of it as the `best, and possibly the only` correct form of German. R3b: The register of modern non-literary prose of all kinds, as found in the serious press, business letters, of®cial documents, instruction manuals and general writing on science, history, economics, etc. At its worst, especially in of ®cial documents, this register can be wooden and heavy, with much use of long compound words (like Arbeitsstatigkeit or Berufstatigkeit for `employment, see Beruf) and a preference for noun constructions over verb constructions (like a decision fassen for sich vorlieûen, see decide). It has been much criticized, especially by proponents of R3a, as Beamtendeutsch or Papierdeutsch, but at its best it can be very precise in expression and show remarkable conciseness, and most Germans consider it appropriate for all kinds of non-literary writing. Of course, these labels can only be a rough guide to usage. The scale of register is continuous; There are no natural divisions and language users are not always consistent. However, the labels have proved easy to operate with, and they are useful in giving an initial indication of the restrictions on the use of particular words. Much speech or writing cannot be assigned as a whole to one of the above categories, and more than anything it is a question of the greater or lesser use of words characteristic of one register or another. Many words also cover a wider span than these categories, i. e. they are typically used in all registers except colloquial speech, or in all registers except formal writing. Such usage is indicated here by the labels R2 / 3 or R1 / 2 respectively. Other words are not absolutely restricted in their usage to a single register, but they are particularly common in R1 or R3; these are indicated as `esp. R1 or `esp. R3. 3. 2 Regionalism: variation according to user It is a characteristic feature of language in use that people, normally quite subconsciously, use forms and expressions which indicate their membership of particular social groups. This may relate to social class (this is very typical of language use in England), or to the region where the speaker comes from.A standard form of German emerged relatively late, reflecting the long political fragmentation of the German-speaking lands, and such regional variation is an important feature of German, so that the learner will encounter it at a much earlier stage and to a much greater degree than, say, in French. It is particularly pervasive in the vocabulary, where, unlike in pronunciation and grammar, there is no Introduction xix

recognized authority. Regional variation can affect very frequent items of vocabulary, as in the case of southern Saturday and northern Saturday for Saturday, and in many semantic ®elds, but especially in relation to areas of everyday life, such as food and drink, and traditional trades, there are instances where no single word has ever gained full acceptance over the whole of the German speech area. And it is particularly the case that there is considerable variation between the various Germanspeaking countries, with different words being in common use in Austria and Switzerland from those which are most widespread in Germany. Such variation can be confusing for foreign learners, who naturally want to know what the `real German equivalent is for a particular English word, but are confronted with a number of words for, say, butcher (see Fleischer) or pavement / sidewalk (see Sidewalk ± in this instance we ®nd comparable variation between British and American usage). As often as not, they will be unaware that they are dealing with regional variants. In the main, they need to know which words are regionally restricted and which, if any, are used most widely and most generally accepted. In this book, we aim to provide information about the existence and distribution of such regional synonyms within a large number of semantic ®elds, and they are signaled by a rough indication of the area in which they are used, i. e. : N: North of the river Main. Where necessary, this area is split into NW and NE along the border of the new (post-1990) federal states. S: South of the river Main. Where necessary, this area is split into SW and SE along the western borders of Bavaria and Austria. CH: German-speaking Switzerland AU: Austria As a general rule, words marked as used in S, SW or SE are also current in Switzerland and / or Austria unless a separate form is given. It must be stressed that the above are very broad indicators; It would be impossible to give absolutely precise information about the regional distribution of many words without overburdening the user with detail. It is also the case, in this age of mass communication, that words which have been typical of a particular area become more widely known and often become fashionable in other areas. Over the last twenty or thirty years, for instance, northern TschuÈss `goodbye has been spreading rapidly into southern Germany, displacing traditional regional alternatives like SW ade, especially among the younger generation in towns and cities. There is a close link between regional and register variation, in that regional variants tend to be more frequent in more colloquial registers (i.e. R1). Formally R3, on the other hand, is typically much less regionally marked. However, although a majority of the regional variants given in this book are used predominantly in R1, this is not universally the case. xx Introduction

Austrian and Swiss variants, in particular, are commonly found in all registers of standard German in those countries. And there are a few words, like haben (see see), which most German speakers use mainly in more formal registers (R3), but which are used commonly in all registers in some regions (in this case, S). 4 Consulting this book 4. 1 The entries As explained in 2. 1 above, each entry in this book consists of a semantic ®eld, i. e. a group of German words of related meaning. Each ®eld is given under a head-word which was felt best to represent the core meaning of the ®eld. In most cases it is that word in the ®eld which has the most general meaning or the widest range of usage, or which is used most frequently. In many instances, it will be a superordinate term as explained in 2.4 under hyponymy, but that is by no means always the case, as many ®elds lack such a word. These head-words are arranged in the book in alphabetical order. Obviously, if a book of this nature were to cover the bulk of the vocabulary of German it would be too huge and unwieldy to use, and a selection had to be made of those semantic ®elds which were felt to be most useful for the advanced English-speaking learner of German. As explained in 1 above, this choice was typically determined by considering which ®elds experience has shown to present most differences to English in terms of their meaning structure, i. e. where most semantic distinctions are present which are unfamiliar to the English learner. In some cases, though, an entry was felt to be justi®ed because of the large number of register or regional variants which it contained (see 3. 1 and 3. 2 above). 4. 2 The layout of the entries Each ®eld treated is presented in the same way. The German head-word is given at the top left, with an English equivalent at the top right which is intended to indicate the general concept covered by the ®eld. The head-words are ordered alphabetically throughout the book. The individual German words which make up the semantic ®eld are listed in alphabetical order in the left-hand column below the head-word, together with any relevant grammatical information (see 4. 3 below) and, if necessary, an indication of whether it is speci®c to a particular register or region (see 3). English glosses are given underneath each German word together with any relevant comments on the usage of the word, in particular any collocation restrictions (see 2.4). The primary purpose of these English glosses is to bring out the distinctive meaning of the German word as clearly as possible, and to show how its meaning differs Introduction xxi

from that of the other words in the ®eld; they are not simply the most usual translation equivalents of the German word such as would be found in a bilingual dictionary. Examples of usage are given opposite each German word, in the right hand column. These examples have been carefully selected, in most cases from actual usage in modern speech or writing, in order to illustrate typical contexts in which the word in question is used. As explained in 1, many of the most frequent words have a wide range of meaning, i. e. they exhibit polysemy. In many instances this means that not all possible senses of a particular word are treated under a single head-word, but only those meanings which fall into the relevant semantic ®eld. Thus, Gehen appears under ¯ieûen in the sense `run (of liquids) and also undergo in the sense` run (of people and animals) or `walk (R1). In potentially confusing cases, or in cases of overlap, cross-references are given to other senses treated in this way in the book; they can also always be found through the indexes. A few German words have such a wide range of senses that it seemed appropriate (and more manageable for the user) to use them as the head-word for two distinct semantic ®elds. The noun Essen, for example, is the head-word for two ®elds: one containing the words denoting `food and another with the words which denote` meal. In the vast majority of ®elds treated the words naturally all consist of the same parts of speech, i. e. they are all nouns, verbs or adjectives. There are some exceptions, though, where German commonly expresses a particular area of ​​meaning within a speci®c ®eld using a different part of speech. Thus, under gern haben, we also list the combination of the adverb gern with a verb (i. E. Gern + verb), because a characteristic way of expressing the notion `like in German is to use gern with an appropriate verb, e. G. I like to dance, `I like dancing. 4. 3 Grammatical information Using words is not simply a matter of knowing the meanings of words but also knowing how to use them in context. In order to do this we need to know about their grammatical features, and for this reason basic grammatical information is provided about all the German words given in this book. This varies depending on whether we are dealing with adjectives, nouns or verbs. It should be noted that this grammatical information relates only to the word as used in the sense relevant to the semantic ® eld being treated. The verb feuert, for example, is transitive in common usage only in the R1 meaning feuert, i. e. `®re sb (from a job) given under dismissed. In other main senses, e. G. `heat (with oil, gas, etc.), it is intransitive. The grammatical features of a number of words vary according to register or region. For example, Balg `kid, brat has the plural form (Èer) in N, but the form (Èe) in S (see Kind). Any such variation is indicated by the same markers as are used for lexical variants. xxii Introduction

adjectives It is a characteristic of German that there is no formal distinction between adjectives and adverbs. Many German adjectives can be used adjectivally or adverbially without alteration, whereas in English we typically add -ly to an adjective to make it into an adverb. German quick, for example, can correspond to English quick or quickly. Problematic instances where this is not so, i. e. where a particular word is unexpectedly only used as an adverb, or only used as an adjective, are indicated by marking the relevant word as (not adv.) or (only adv.). Some German adjectives are only used predicatively, i. e. after the verb be. This is the case, for example, of the R1 adjective spitze (`super, see Excellent); we can say His new car is great, but not a great car. This is indicated by marking the adjective as (only pred.). On the other hand, a small number of adjectives, usually marked (not pred.), Are never used predicatively. nouns The gender of German nouns is indicated by putting der, die or das after the noun. The way they form the plural is shown by putting the plural suf®x in brackets after the de®nite article, together with an umlaut if the plural noun has one, or a dash if it does not. If there is no change in the plural this is indicated by a dash alone. Nouns may thus appear as in the following examples: contract, der (Èe) Wiese, die (-n) Viertel, das (-) Some masculine nouns take a different ending in the accusative, dative and genitive singular cases. For these nouns the genitive ending is given before the plural ending, e. G. : Pfaffe, the (-n, -n) (ie the priest, the / the / the / the priest, the priest) thought, the (-ns, -n) (ie the thought, the / the thought, the thought, the Thoughts) German very commonly uses adjectives as nouns. These have an initial capital letter, as they are nouns, but they keep their adjective endings. They are shown as follows: Traveler, die / der (adj. Decl.) Some nouns, notably those which denote a mass or a collective idea, do not have a plural form (or the plural form, if it exists, is used very rarely), e. G. Rindvieh `cattle (see cow). Such nouns are marked `(no pl.). Other nouns, like Lebensmittel (see Essen1) are almost always used in the plural and are marked `(pl.). Verbs For the reasons explained in 2.4, all the German verbs listed in this book are given with an indication of their valency. The following examples, Introduction xxiii

taken from various entries in the book, illustrate how some of the most common valency models in German are presented here. Others follow a similar pattern of presentation. die the Intransitive verb, used with a subject in the nominative case, e. G. She dies. accept sth transitive verb, used with a direct (accusative) object denoting a thing, e. G. She accepted the offer. sb wonder surprise sb Transitive verb, used with a direct (accusative) object denoting a person, e. G. This incident puzzled me. improve sb / sth correct sb / sth Transitive verb, used with a direct (accusative) object denoting a person or a thing, e. G. She made me better. (sth) essen eat (sth) verb which can be used transitively with a direct object denoting a thing, e. G. : She eats the sausage, or without an object, e. G. I have already eaten. hurry hurry Re¯exive verb, used with a re¯exive pronoun and no other objects, e. G. We are in a hurry. oneself / sb / sth change alter (sb / sth) verb which is used with a re¯exive pronoun corresponding to an English intransitive verb, e. G. Much has changed here; or with a direct (accusative) object denoting a person or a thing, e. G. She changed her mind. mistrust sb / sth Verb used with a dative object denoting a person or a thing, e. G. Why should he distrust me? give sb sth give sb sth verb used with a direct (accusative) object denoting a thing and a dative object denoting a person, e. G. She gave money to her boyfriend. make use of sb / sth Re¯exive verb, used with a re¯exive pronoun and an object in the genitive case denoting a person or a thing, e. G. He used hidden methods. (on sb / sth) wait (for sb / sth) Verb which can be used with no object, e. G. I waited there, or with a prepositional object introduced by auf followed by the accusative case, e. G. I've been waiting for you there. to take care of sb / sth look after sb / sth Re¯exive verb, used with a re¯exive pronoun and a prepositional object introduced by um, e. G. I'll take care of the food. xxiv Introduction

put sb / sth swh Transitive verb which is used with a direct (accusative) object denoting a person or a thing, and a phrase indicating direction, e. G. He puts the broom in the corner. Most verb pre®xes are either separable, like ab-, an- and auf-, or inseparable, like be, er and ver. Separable verbs always have the stress on the pre®x, e. G. Âabhaben, whilst inseparable verbs have the stress on the verb root, e. G. mean. A few pre®xes, however, notably durch-, uÈber-, um- and unter- are sometimes separable and sometimes inseparable, and the stress is marked on all such verbs in this book to show whether the pre®x is separable or inseparable , e. G. Pouring over or pouring over (see pouring). 4. 3 Indexes There are two indexes. The German word index lists all the German words dealt with in the entries, and the English word index contains all the English words used in the de®nitions of the German words treated. Both the German and English words are indexed to the head-words of the entries for the various semantic ®elds. In this way the user can access the material starting from either language. All main words within a phrasal expression are indexed separately, so that not all cups have in the cupboard (see crazy) can be found both under cup and under cupboard. 4. 4 Spelling We have adopted for this book the revised spelling which was introduced in schools in the German-speaking countries in 1998 and which will be the only of®cially recognized alternative from 2005. All words are thus spelled according to the principles laid out in the recognized authoritative works, i. e. Bertelsmann. The new German spelling (GuÈtersloh 1996) and the 21st edition of DUDEN: Spelling of the German language (Mannheim 1996). Introduction xxv

Agreement Agreement, the (-) agreement (esp. Formal, signed) agreement, the (-en) agreement (accepted as binding, but not necessarily formal) arrangement, the (-n) arrangement (spoken) agreement, the (-s ) (R3b) agreement (esp. Informal diplomatic `gentlemen s agreement) contract, the (-e) (R3b) contract (esp. Commercial) agreement, the (-) understanding, arrangement, agreement (R3) understanding, arrangement, agreement Verreung, die (-en) arrangement, agreement (mutual); appointment agreement, the (-en) arrangement, agreement (mutual decision about course of action) contract, der (Èe) contract (commercial), treaty (diplomatic), agreement (legally binding) change [see also replace] slightly change (R3 ) alter, revise, amend sth (ie change or correct details) agreement The victorious powers concluded the Potsdam Agreement in August 1945. This would, however, violate our agreement. So it sticks with our agreement from yesterday. He just got in touch with us without prior consultation. The talks ended with an agreement on the treatment of the deported asylum seekers. The contract for the delivery of raw materials was not extended. Our English suppliers did not keep the contract. In addition, an agreement is sought to protect the Rhine against pollution by chlorides. An agreement on this issue will form an essential basis for a future European energy policy. He didn't keep our appointment. She has an appointment with the boss at two today. After the final agreements on his visit to the President, Kohl will be leaving for Washington on Sunday. You signed a new three-year contract today. With the Treaty of Versailles, Germany was militarily disempowered. change, old Can we change the motion, the regulations, the plan, the text passage, the judgment, the constitution? 1

(sich) alternate alternate, vary, take turns (with things) sich / sb / sth change change, alter (sb / sth) (typically a relatively abrupt, or conscious change, resulting in a striking difference) sb / sth exchange sb / sth (typically not commercially) sb / sth auswechseleln (ex) change, replace, substitute sb / sth (esp.sth broken or used, or sb injured) to exchange sth (for sth) exchange, swap sth (receive or give sth in exchange for sth else) sth swap exchange, swap sth (for another ± or something else ± of the same kind or the same value) sth umÄndern alter, revise, modify sth (ie give a new form to sth, esp. clothes, buildings or texts) um switch change (channels, stations) switch change (suddenly, of weather, mood), veer (of wind) switch change (trains, boats, planes, etc.) exchange sth (for / in sth) exchange sth (goods, money) convert sth (into sth else, usually intentionally) change sth (in sth) change sth (money) We change on long journeys always leaving us behind the wheel. Rain and snow alternated with each other. She has changed her mind, her name, her plans. You will not be able to change it. With us, a lot / nothing has changed. Times change. It has changed lately. They exchanged views, stamps, letters, pictures, experiences, experiences, thoughts. The two countries have exchanged prisoners. We had to change the pears every few weeks. The injured player was replaced. He was happy to be able to exchange the cool, damp, rainy atmosphere for the cozy temperature of the ship. They exchange stamps. He swapped his apartment for a bigger one. She exchanged a quick look with him. I don't want to swap places with her. One wants to completely change the Kaiserstrasse. I want to change the skirt, the drawing, the design now. She preferred to switch to another channel. The weather turned overnight and frost has set in. The exuberant mood suddenly turned into aggression. We had to change trains in Milan to get to Bergamo. I want to exchange 100 dollars for shillings. She exchanged the dress for a red one. At 760mm air pressure and 0 8C, water is converted into ice. She was transformed. The bank clerk changed her 100 dollar bill into Deutschmarks. 2 change

to change oneself / sb / sth change, alter sb / sth (esp. appearance or concrete things, typically slightly, gradually or unintentionally) to swap sth (with sth) exchange, switch sth (usually by mistake) to transform sb / sth (into sth) change, transform sb / sth (into sth) (completely different) to confuse sb / sth (with sb / sth) mix sb / sth up, confuse sb / sth (with sb / sth) to change (in sth) (R3) change , develop (into sth) (typically a long process) (sth )wechsel exchange sth, change (sth) (ie substitute one for another of the same kind )begeln gradually / slowly (R1) + verb begin / start to verb sth ( esp. relating to emotional response) Anfang (R3a) start, set in, break (of period of time) (sth) / (with sth) begin, start (sth) (actions or processes stretching forward in time or space) his Begin (R3b) begin, start (esp. Of abstract things, developments starting at a particular time) approach (R1) start, begin (at a speci®c time) raise (R3a) begin, start (suggests sole mnity or signi®cance) She changed the tone. These experiences changed him internally. He wants to change the world. The appearance of the city has changed a lot. It has hardly changed in twenty years. She swapped her coat and umbrella for mine. She turned the prince into a frog. The war has turned the landscape into a desert. Heating turns water into steam. We mixed up our coats in a hurry. I always mix up the two twins. His love turned into hate. The appearance of the city has changed only insignificantly since then. He's got a bike, changed the subject. Can you change me ten marks? The program changes regularly. The weather changes constantly. begin, start Gradually / slowly she got angry. Gradually / slowly I am losing patience. The day, spring is dawning. A new time has dawned. Life only begins at forty. He starts his work / with work. Have you started the letter yet? She starts to get old. With this agreement, a new political epoch began. The problems started there. When does the theater, the performance start? School starts again tomorrow. Now a new era was dawning. He started to sing mass, somewhat mastering the wording. start 3

start up (of motor); (R3b) start (of largescale processes, a `run in the cinema or theater, etc.) zurückingen start up (of engine) (sth) / (with sth) begin (R2 / 3) begin, start (sth) (actions or processes stretching forward in time or space) start, begin, break (at a speci®c point in time) start (R1) start, begin (eg performance, at a speci®c time) (start with sth) (R1 ) get started (with sth) (with enthusiasm )start start (up), take off (esp. of motors, aeroplanes and in races) start sth start sth (process, action, race, machinery) afraid (of sb / sth ) Afraid to have (R1 / 2) be afraid of sb / sth to be afraid of sb / sth (R1 / 2) be afraid, fear for sb / sth to frighten sb (R3) frighten sb, make sb afraid to fear sb (R3a ) make sb anxious / frightened sb is (R1: I am) bange sb feels scared / afraid The engine, the machine starts. The advertising campaign will start soon. The film will only open in Austria in July. The engine will not start when it is cold. Then I heard the rotor of a helicopter starting. The performance starts at 7.30 p.m. In 1995 the construction of the new theater began. She's starting to get old. She has started her work / with her work. With these words the music started. In the west, too, widespread showers set in at night. After 1945 a stormy development began. It’s about to start again. When does the film, the concert, the game, the performance start? They rolled up their sleeves and got to work. He started his story straight away. The plane took off on time. His car starts well even in winter. The drivers started in the Tour de France. I started the engine. The pilot started the engines. They will soon start a new attempt, an advertising campaign. be afraid She was (very) afraid of spiders, of the big dog. I'm scared of the exam. He has been afraid for his job since the economic crisis. The sudden appearance terrified her. The sound scared him. The darkness scares the girl. She was afraid of the exam. I am (afraid and) afraid. 4 be afraid

to fear sb / sth (R3a) fear for sb / sth (es) fear for sb / sth (R3a) sb fears sth fear sb (R3a) frighten, alarm sb [most often in pres. part. ] be afraid of sth (esp sth nasty happening) (of sb / sth) to frighten (R3a) [strong verb: frightened ± frightened] be scared / startled (by sb / sth) to frighten sb [weak verb: frightened ± frightened ] frighten / scare / startle sb fučrchten + clause (R1 / 2) be afraid (that sth nasty will happen) sb / sth fear (R3) be in awe of, fear, dread sb / sth um sb / sth (R2 / 3) worry, be anxious about sb / sth sich (in front of sb / sth) fear (R2 / 3) be frightened of / dread sb / sth (concrete danger) (es) grault sb / sth (in front of sb / sth) ( R1) be scared (of sb / sth) (used esp. Of children) (es) horror sb / sich horusen (before sb / sth) (R3a) sb dreads / is terri®ed of sb / sth (have a phobia) (es) dread sb (in front of sb / sth) (R3) sb has a dread (of sb / sth) (typically sth which might happen) (es) gruselt sb / sich gruseln (in front of sb / sth) sb s ¯esh creeps (at sb / sth) sth shyen shrink, shy away from sth The population of the province fears for their future. He worried about the reputation of his town. You fear the future. You feared these animals. His threats frightened me. An anxious feeling overcame him. He fears that he will be shown / to be shown. She fears the worst. She was frightened of the dog at this sight. He was scared (to death). The big dog frightened him. The sight terrified her very much. You look terrifying. After the accident, she feared that the man would report her. He does not fear death. He feared no opponent. He was feared because of his severity. She fears for her health. Kuwait fears for its independence. The child is very afraid of the heat. They are afraid of having to be left alone. The child horrifies the cat in the dark house. Most farmers now dread the future. The Chancellor must also be horrified. She is terrified of worms, spiders. She dreaded her father's vengeance. He dreads being alone. It can still shudder to watch this film today. She shuddered in the cave. He spared no effort. Burned child shies away from fire. You spared no expense. Be afraid 5

to shy away from (of sth) shrink from, be afraid of sth (of sb / sth) schiss haben (R1 *) be shit scared (of sb / sth) accept1 [see also got] accept sth accept, agree with, acknowledge sth ( eg suggestion, argument) accept sb accept sb (eg as a friend, colleague) accept sth accept sth (ie take sth offered) accept sb (in sth) admit sb (to sth) see sth recognize, realize sth accept sth accept, take sth as valid take sth put up with, tolerate sth take sth on (eg task, often burdensome) take sth on (eg task, responsibility) accept accept (of invitations) accept2 [see also think, guess ] Assume sth assume, presume, suppose sth She did not shy away from reporting this case to the police. I'm really scared of the exam on Monday. accept I have accepted the offer, your apology. He has to accept that he cannot change anything. I accepted him as a partner. She was accepted by the group. She accepted the offer, the terms, the present, the package, the check, the position, the proposal. She was admitted to the club, to the hospital. She didn't really want to see that she was wrong. I do not accept this objection, this declaration, this contradiction. We had to accept defeat, our fate, as inevitable. He doesn't want to take responsibility for it. She took the blame. He doesn't want to take responsibility. I will pay the costs. Do you know whether Monika and Peter have already agreed for tonight? suppose I assume he's already in the office. It can be assumed that she saw him in town. 6 accept

sth ahnen sense, suspect sth (ie have an idea that sth is the case) mutmaûen + clause (R3a) conjecture, surmise that (ie conclude sth on the basis of the available facts) suspect sth (ie regard sth ± often sth bad or unpleasant ± as probable) assume sth assume, presuppose sth (absolute condition) to see [see also see] to look at sb / sth (R3) look at sb / sth (in a certain way) to look at sb / sth (R1) look at sb / sth look at sb / sth (R3; S) look at sb / sth look at sb / sth look at sb / sth look at sb / sth have a (good) look at sb / sth; watch sth (match, show, etc.) tell, see sth by looking at sb sb / sth observe, watch sb / sth (typically sb / sth moving) (sich) sb / stehen look at sb / sth (from all angles or in every detail) Little did she know that she would never see him again. I suspected something like that. I didn't suspect a thing of that. Since he had not returned, it was suspected that he had been captured. He immediately suspected bad intentions. She suspected he wouldn't come. The police suspect arson. I suspect him in the library. This fact can be assumed to be known. I assume that you can speak English. look She gave him a long, hostile, smiling look. She looked angrily at her son. But she looked at me very strangely. Look at that thing! She looked at him intently, examiningly, calmly, with interest. She looked at him thoughtfully, searchingly, crookedly, uncertainly, with contempt. We should take a look at his new car. I want to see his new car and your pictures. Tomorrow evening I really want to see the game against Inter-Milan. You can tell by looking at him. Everyone can see his happiness, his age. He observed her secretly and critically. She watched him take the letter out of the drawer. The police had him watched. Let me look at you from all sides. But I want to take a closer look at that. view 7

sth (have a) look at, visit sth (place of interest) to view sth (R3) look at, view sb / sth (intensively) fernsehen watch television hinsehen look (in a certain direction) sb / sth pattern scrutinize, inspect sb / sth (sb / sth) watch (sb / sth) answer (sb) (answer to sth) answer, reply, respond (to sb) (to sth) answer sth answer sth, reply, respond to sth (quite fully) (sb) answer (to sth) answer, give a reply (to sb) (to sth) (sb) (to sth) counter (R3) reply, retort (to sb) (to sth) (contradicting other person) ( to respond to sb) (to sth) (R3) reply, respond (to sb) (to sth) We were able to visit the Porta Nigra and the Kaiserthermen in Trier. She studied the watercolors in the Albertina for a long time. You watch too much TV. Children shouldn't watch TV for hours. Take a look! If you look closely, you can already see the weak point. She eyed poor Manfred openly from head to toe. You can watch him at work, at the football game, at the tournament. Make sure you get home on time. answer She did not answer (me) my question. She replies with a smile. He replied that he would like to come along. She answered my question (with yes). She answered my letter. Is there no answer? She didn't give me an answer to my question. She didn't know what to say to that. In response to this accusation, she replied that she did not know anything about it. No, '' he replied vehemently. I didn't know what to say to her when she asked. NB: With the register or regional restrictions indicated, look at yourself (R1) and look at yourself (R3; S) are alternatives to look at yourself; look at (R1) and look at (R3; S) to look at; look (R1) and look (R3; S) to look; and watch (R1) and watch (R3; S) to watch. Several simple verbs meaning `see, look, etc. (see see) can be pre®xed with anand used to mean` look at, with the speci®c sense indicated by the simple verb, e. G. gawk at (R1) `gawp at, gawk at (R1)` stare at, stare at `gaze at, etc. 8 answers

to dress / undress [see also wear] (sth) to take off sth, take (sth) off (esp. outer garment) to dress sb / sb (R3) get dressed / dress sb to put on sth (R3) put sth on (esp formal clothing) to do sth (R1) put sth on to himself / sb to put on get dressed / dress sb to put on sth on (clothes) to undress to sb (R3) get undressed / undress sb to undress sb get undressed / undress sb to do sth take sth off (clothes) to dress sb (R3) clothe sb (ie provide clothes for sb) to dress sb out kit sb out (esp. new set of clothes or uniform) to undress sb (R3) get undressed / undress sb (completely ) sich / sb + adv to dress dress os / sb + adv (ie in a particular way) to get into sth (R1) put sth on (clothes) to change clothes get changed (clothes) get (un) dressed Don't you want (the coat ) lay down? She took off her jewelry. She dressed for the theater. The mother dressed the boy. He put on his uniform. She put on her new evening dress, her best jewelry. Get on a sweater quickly. Get dressed quickly, we have to leave in a moment. She was well dressed, warmly. He dressed the baby. He had put on his new shirt. She put on her socks, shoes, and blouse. What should I wear? She undressed quickly. She undressed the boy. She went into the bedroom and undressed. He had already undressed the child. He took off his gloves, coat, jacket, sweater. After the disaster, the population had to be clothed and taken care of. He clothed the beggar, the poor. I have to redress the family. The recruits were dressed. He had to undress in prison. She undressed the child. She always dresses elegantly. She always dresses her children properly. She was dressed all in red. She got into her clothes, into her pants. We were so wet that we had to change immediately. We want to change for the theater. getting dressed / undressed 9

Work [see also occupation] work, the work (as activity and product), piece of work, labor effort, the effort (s), exertion effort, the effort (s), endeavor employment, the ( -en) occupation, activity Einsatz, der (no pl.) effort, commitment Maloche, die (no pl.) (NW) work, drudgery effort, die (-n) trouble, bother activity, die (-en) [see thus Tat] activity, occupation Werk, das (-e) work (esp. R2 / 3, esp. creative product); work (general, in a few set phrases); works, factory work work work ackern (N) work hard, slog work on sth work (on), treat sth work She did this hard work. His work received an award. She has a lot of work to do with the child. She put a lot of effort into this work. Despite our best efforts, we did not succeed in saving them. I thanked her for her efforts. He must have something to do, otherwise he will be bored. She is temporarily unemployed. I praised him for his commitment. The effort was worthwhile. The victims of the accident were rescued with all possible efforts. We have the same maloche every day. A lot of money can only be made with proper maloche. This work cost him a lot of effort. Please do that if you don't have to worry. I found the key with no effort. That is part of the job of a teacher. She is looking for a well-paid job in publishing. It is a precious, valuable work. This is your work! We are looking for the BASF plants in Ludwigshafen. work She has worked ï¿1⁄2 neatly, neatly, carefully. He works for the railway, in a factory, at the post office. She worked tired / sick. We all have to work harder for less money. He works from morning to night. He worked wood and metal.He worked on the subject in detail. 10 work

be busy, occupy oneself (typically not professionally) ¯eiûig sein be diligent, hard-working, industrious hackeln (AU) work (hard), have a job malochen (NW) work hard, create slog (R1) be active, busy; (SW) work schuften (R1) work hard, slog taÈtig sein (esp.R3b) work, be employed, be busy processing sth work on, process sth werken work (manually, in R1 often ironic) (R3) work (to signi®cant effect; also of things) angry [see also excited] angry annoyed, irritated, cross; annoying angry outraged, incensed, very angry evil [see also bad] [in this sense, only used pred. of people] angry, cross (of people); aggressive (of animals) I have never been politically active. He works part-time as a writer. He likes to work outside in the garden. They are irky like bees / ants. But what were you guys today! Franz is now hacking in the old Danube harbor. However, they have to work hard for the rest of the year to go on vacation in Bahamas. She works from morning to evening. (SW) Peter can't make it today, he's free. But Christian works for two. She worked sick in this factory. The locksmith has been working in our factory for a year. She works as a lawyer in the civil service. She works tirelessly. Only the finest raw materials are processed in this factory. Here wood is turned into paper. He works from morning to night. Have the children work in the kitchen. He worked as a development aid worker in East Africa for twenty years. The poison worked surprisingly quickly. annoyed He looks angry. He was very angry about it. It was an annoying incident. She was very upset by his remark. He said it in an angry voice. She was angry with me / with her boyfriend. She got angry eyes. She looked at him angrily. Please don't be angry with me. The dog is evil. angry 11

bitterboÈse (esp. R1) extremely cross empoÈrt indignant, incensed indignant, outraged, incensed angry infuriated erzurnt (R3) incensed, angry fuchsteufelswild (R1) livid furious furious, grim rasend furious, livid, enraged angry (R1) cross, mad angry annoyed, angry angry furious, angry angry (R3), angry foaming, angry (R1) absolutely furious, foaming with rage angry angry breathe breath / take a breath / draw (a) breath She looked at him bitter angry. He looked bitterly angry. She was really upset by this insolent remark from the professor. He looks indignant. The villagers are indignant about the closure of the railway line. She looked at him angrily. I was angry at his behavior. The professor was curious about the behavior of his assistants. The minister left the room with approval. She went mad when she heard about it. Mr. Wiechert looks grim today. She looked grim. The man laughed grimly. He still makes me mad. I could get mad. He's angry because he has to stay at home. He's really mad at Marlene. He was very angry about this treatment. She's so upset that she doesn't want to see me. She was angry with the teacher. She made him angry. She got mad when she heard this. He rushed out of the house, furious, foaming and snorting. She made an angry move. She was angry with him at this unreasonable demand. breathe She stopped digging and took a short breath. He stopped and took a deep breath. 12 breathe

breathe breathe (sth) out breathe (sth) out (sth) breathe (sth) in hecheln pant (typically of dogs) jappen (N) / japsen (R1) gasp, pant (of people) pant gasp, puff, pant pusten (R1) puff, blow snort snort (typically of horses) puff (R1) wheeze, puff, pant; (SW) breathe breathe (R1) take a breather excited [see also angerlich] fearful [see also fear to have] anxious (having a nervous or timid disposition, or being worried in a particular situation) excited excited, agitated, nervous (often apparent) moved (R2 / 3) moved, emotionally excited (R2 / 3) excited, aroused, agitated (through strong emotion, possibly with no outward sign) She breathed easily, laboriously, regularly, heavily, deeply, restlessly. The old man was no longer breathing. He let out an audible, forceful, slow, deep breath. She took a deep breath through her nose. She breathed in the fresh air, the scent. The dog looked up at him panting. He had circulatory disorders and was gasping for air all the time. Panting, he ran towards the garden gate. He gasped under the heavy burden. He blew into the fire. The policeman said he'd been drinking, so he had to blow in the bag. The horses snorted as we reached the forest. The teacher snorted when he heard the excuses. (R1) He panted hard, angry, restless. (SW) You can hardly breathe here. They lay down to take a breather. excited Leo was already standing outside the garage, looking anxiously at his watch. He was a scared guy. The children were very excited with joy. But her voice sounds very excited. She explained it to him in a moving voice. The old man was deeply moved with joy. She got more and more excited as he spoke. He was very excited with anger. A heated argument ensued. excited 13

irritated irritated, irritable stirred [see also touching] moved, touched kribb (e) lig (R1) edgy, nervous nervoÈs nervous zapp (e) lig (R1) ®dgety, edgy, uneasy stop [see also end, hold, to cancel] (sth) break (sth) off, stop (sth) suddenly (with sth) cease, ®nish (sth), come to an end to fail cease functioning, fail (because of defect) cease functioning (esp. suddenly, temporarily) (with sth) keep (R3) pause (in / with sth), stop (temporarily) set sth (R3) stop, cease sth, not continue with sth innehalten (R3) pause let sth stop, leave sth ( ie not do it) interrupt sth interrupt sth Tonight she was pale, tired and irritable. I am always irritable after these performances. We pretend to be touched by the hospitality that is bestowed on us. If you haven't eaten for a long time, you become irritable, nervous, tingly. He suddenly made a nervous, downright disconcerted impression. He puffed nervously on his fat cigar. She was starting to fidget when she heard the story. cease He broke off the conversation, his studies, the negotiations. The music stopped. The rain has finally stopped. It has stopped raining. He stopped working. The power went out early this morning. An engine from Chicago ®el. The engine suddenly cut out at the motorway entrance. Your heart has stopped. They stopped working briefly. He stopped laughing and talking. The company had to stop production. Now she has also stopped making payments. He had grown tired talking and paused for a moment. Please leave these comments. He can't quit smoking. Stop it, I'll do it. She had to interrupt her journey. She didn't want to interrupt her work. 14 stop

to omit sth (R3) refrain, desist from (doing) sth, not do sth spread (sth) (out), extend (sth) (evenly in all directions) expand, extend (sth) , stretch (sth) out (time or space, with or without movement ± esp. over a wide area) expand / spread, extend (sth) (esp. increasing in signi®cance) / spread (R3a ) spread, extend (sth) sich / sth stretch, lengthen, extend (sth) sth extend (AU) extend, defer (a period of time) extend extend, stretch (over an area, without movement) sich / extend expand, enlarge, widen (sth) (ie make larger in area; also of abstract things) um sichzüge spread (esp. of pernicious things) sth spreizen spread sth (typically of legs, ®ngers or toes, or a bird s wings or tail) You are asked to refrain from smoking. Please refrain from making these comments! spread you spread your arms. The bird spreads its wings. He spreads the papers on the table. The fire spread quickly. The forest spreads to the river. We don't want to prolong the evening too long. The city expanded over time. A low extends across the British Isles. The session lasted until midnight. The unrest threatened to develop into a revolution. The list of dangerous substances is being expanded considerably as a result of new knowledge. A fresh white sheet is spread over the dining table. A smile spread across her face. She stretched the elastic until it broke. He stretched after sleep. The sleeves of the sweater stretched a lot during washing. The boss now wants to extend the deadline, the deadline. The forest extends down into the valley. His criticism also extended to his colleagues. He wants to expand his knowledge. The airport is now to be expanded. At DarmstaÈdter Kreuz, the A67 widened from three to four lanes. The epidemic, the fire, the plague spread rapidly. He spread his legs, fingers, toes. The bird spread its tail, its wings. spread out 15

streuen sth [see also gieûen] spread, strew, scatter sth (ie sth granular or in loose particles) on sth spread (from one thing / place to another) spread (from one thing / place to another) disseminate, spread (sth) (patchily over a wide area, often of abstract things) widen / sth widen sth, make sth wider; become against oneself / sth distribute, disperse (sth) excellent excellent excellent cool (R1, esp. teenagers) cool, fabulous scents (R1) smashing, great first class ®rst-class, ®rst-rate excellent (R2 / 3) excellent fabulous (R1) splendid, fabulous fantastic (R1) fantastic fine ®ne; (esp. R1) excellent, great, splendid He strewed sand on the ground, seeds on the field, sugar on the cake. She scattered fodder for the birds. The fire spread to the barn. The problems of urban youth spread to rural areas. The cancer spreads to other organs. The soldiers panicked. My friends are spread all over the country. The rumor spread quickly. The foul odor spreads over a large area. They now want to widen the main street. The range of consumer goods has expanded considerably. She distributed her money among the poor. He distributed leaflets to passers-by. We spread out over the whole square. excellent He is an excellent speaker. The wine was excellent. She speaks excellent German. The new CD from that is totally cool. Jochen is a really cool guy. A fireplace evening like this can be incredibly fragrant. The food tastes great. We only stayed in first class hotels. He's a top notch footballer. Mr. von Hamm is considered an excellent museum specialist. It is an excellent wine. Our vacation in Crete was just fabulous. The area is fabulously beautiful in summer. But she played fantastic. That was a fantastic film. He loves fine wines. But he's a fine guy. Nice that you came! 16 excellent

geil / affengeil (R1, esp. teenagers) brilliant, wicked brilliant brilliant, splendid great wonderful, superb, splendid good good marvelous, splendid excellent excellent, outstanding ideal ideal klasse (R1) great knorke (old R1) smashing phenomenal phenomenal picobello ( R1) super, ®rst-class, immaculate prima (R1) fantastic, great fabulous (R1) fantastic, terri®c spitze (R1) [only pred. ] great super (R1) great, smashing, great tip top (R1) ®rst-class, immaculate It looked really cool. I end up awesome, your new car. That was a brilliant idea. He is a brilliant dancer. I'm doing brilliantly. With this film she had a great success. She played great. He did a good job. You have a good chance. He's a good student. She only reads good books. From the tower you have a wonderful view. Today was a wonderful day. He congratulated her on this outstanding achievement. The terrain was ideal for horse racing. For us she was the ideal teacher. The new teacher is great, isn't it? She looked great. It's a great car. That's a tough thing. His uncle is just gnawed. He has a phenomenal ability to quickly familiarize himself with the most complex of matters. Her apartment was spotless. He is always perfectly dressed. He thought the band was great. It was a great party. Everything worked out fine. But he scored a fabulous goal. Our new apartment is amazingly large. Your black top looks great. His new car is great! This film is great! Monika bought a great cassette. They played great yesterday. Frau SchoÈne was dressed in tip-top fashion again. Your booth looks tip-top. excellent 17

great (R1) fantastic, great tref¯ich (R3a) splendid, excellent vorref¯ich (R2 / 3) splendid, excellent, superb excellent splendid, excellent, superb ball ball, der (Èe) ball (esp. soft or elastic, so that it can bounce) ball, the (-) ball (of string, wool, etc.); tangle (metaphorically of other things or people) Kugel, die (-n) ball (of hard, non-bouncing material, or dough, pastry, etc.); sphere; bullet cover to cover sth put a (protective) cover on sth; cover sth (abstract or commercial); take the cover off sth sb / sth cover sb / sth (general, literal senses) haben put a (loose) cover on sth sb / sth cover sb / sth (mainly non-literal senses, or with ref. to roofs ); set (table) That was a great idea. Just great, your new shoes. She sang great again. There are good private schools in America. He's a real scientist. Now it became evident what an excellent job his underground agents had done. An excellent wine grows here. She complimented him on his excellent German. ball He has thrown the ball in, given it, stopped, shot into the goal. It is a soccer ball, rubber ball, leather ball, tennis ball. On the table was a ball of twine, thread, silk, wool. The boys rolled on the floor, balled into an inextricable ball. They were balls made of iron, glass, wood, metal, steel, stone, dough. The earth is a sphere. The bullet missed its target. cover We now have to cover the swimming pool with a tarpaulin. Somehow we have to cover the risk. Would you like to cover the table, please? Snow covered the meadows. She covered her face with her hands. The sky is cloudy. The skirt barely covered her knees. On Saturday I have to make the beds fresh. I want to have this armchair reupholstered. You covered our retreat. The insurance did not cover the damage. The roof is thatched. The table is set for six people. 18 ball

cover and conceal sb / sth, hide sb / sth from view sb / sth cover sb / sth up / over (completely) mean to mean sth [not used in passive] mean, signify sth sth say (R2 / 3) [the object is a clause or inde®nite; not used in passive] make sth clear, imply, express sth sth hot [the object is a clause or an inde®nite; not used in passive] be meant, have a particular meaning or import sb / sth mein [see also think] [the subject is a person] intend sb / sth, have sb / sth in mind hurry up [see also rasen] hurry up hurry, hasten where hasten (R3a) hurry swh (mainly of people) hurry / es hurry (sb with sth) be urgent (of things) have a hurry / be in a hurry (R3) be in a hurry Clouds obscured the sun. She covered the hole in the wall with a picture. He covered his face with his hands. The pit was covered with a large tarpaulin. mean Does that mean you have to move out? She meant a lot to him. These clouds can mean a storm. What does that word mean? This rule says that you don't get any alcohol here. The telegram was not answered, but that doesn't mean anything. So that means that she has no time for me. What is the name of pig in Russian? What do you mean? I know exactly what this sign means. That means something. Who / what does she mean by this comment? Which book do you mean I mean something completely different. I didn't mean it badly. hurry hurry up, otherwise we'll be late. But you must have made a great hurry. He hurried to settle the matter. He hurried quickly through the park back to the castle. She hurried to meet her brother. He rushed to his aid and was also killed. The letter is not urgent / there is no urgent matter with the letter. The matter is very urgent / This matter is very urgent. I told him I was in a rush because I had to pick you up. The murderer was in no hurry. mean 19

be in a hurry where hasten (R3) rush swh (typically agitated, often in context of an unpleasant situation) pressieren / es pressiert (sb with sth) (S) (be in a) hurry (people); be urgent (things) get ran (R1) get a move on, hurry (up) send oneself (SE) hurry (of people) make fast (R1) get a move on, hurry sich sputen (N) hurry (of people) romp (AU, NW) hurry (of people) rush over / over rush (with sth) rush sth [most often in past part.] end [see also stop, hold, close] conclude, complete sth, bring sth to an end to conclude sth (R3b) ®nish sth, bring sth to an end to conclude (R3b) be completed, come to an end to undo sth (R3b) conclude sth, bring sth to an end (of®cially or formally) I'm in a hurry today, I have to be at the train station by 10 a.m. They hurried through the streets in panic. When Andrea found out, she hurried down the stairs. He hurries from appointment to appointment. Press a little! You are in such a hurry, my little one. Take your time, there is no rush to get married. If you do it properly, you will arrive on time. Send yourselves, otherwise we'll be late. We had to send each other up anyway. Hurry up, it's already five to half past four. We have to hurry up, the taxi is already waiting. But you have to hurry up if you want to finish. But you romped about a lot. Romp around a little. But now we have to frolic. I do not want to rush the matter. You shouldn't rush this thing. Unfortunately, it was a somewhat hasty decision. ®nish She completed her studies with the state examination. The federal government concluded an agreement with Poland. This agreement brought years of strife to an end. There are certainly parts of the world where this process is far from being completed. The President canceled the sitting at 8 p. M. The Prussian troops lifted the siege of the city. 20 finish

somehow go out ®nish, end (in a certain way) ausklingen (R3a) ®nish, end (in a particular way, often leaving a pleasant memory) end sth ®nish sth, bring sth to an end (a state or an activity) sth quendigen (R3) ®nish sth, bring sth to an end (a state or an activity) sth Beschlieûen (R3) end, conclude sth (typically an event or an activity) enden (R3) (come to an) end, ® nish to end sth / do / set (R3) put an end to sth (sth) to end + verb ®nish verb + ing (sth) to end / his come to / be at an end to do sth ®nish sth off (typically a task or a duty) sth finished + verb [see also ready] ®nish verb + ing sth (with sth) sein / werden [see also ready] be ®nished, have / get sth ®nished (sth) schlieûen conclude, close, wind up (sth) complete sth (R3) complete sth How did the elections turn out? The game ended in a draw. Everything turned out well for him. . His speech ended with a warning to all citizens. The party ended comfortably. I haven't finished the letter yet. He successfully completed his studies. When he finished the lecture he was exhausted. Iraq wanted to end the war now. The project should be completed in 2005. He concluded his speech with the following words. The program ended with the singing of the national anthem. The course ends in May. It won't end well. The applause didn't seem to end. The bus line ends at the border. This incident put an end to his political career. Now we have to put an end to this nonsense. She wanted to finish the story. She has played the piece to the end. The party did not end until the early hours of the morning. My patience is running out. But now we still have to take care of some formalities. I still have to do my shopping. She has finished writing the letter. The house was finished last week. The new town hall is ready. Are you finished with your work? I finished the job yesterday. He closed the session at seven. The meeting closed at seven. He closed his letter with a few fine phrases. She has turned eighteen. He was unable to complete his great work. quit 21

command to arrange sth (R3b) decree, instruct sth (esp. of sb acting in of®cial capacity) instruct sb (+ zu + inf) (R3) give sb instructions (to do sth) ask sb (to do sth) call on sb , tell sb (to do sth) sb (to do sth) instruct sb (R3) instruct, tell sb (to do sth) give sb an instruction, commission (to do sth) sb (sth) befehlen order, command sb ( to do sth) befehligen (R3b) have / be in command of sth (in military terms) sb where beordern (R3) order, summon sb to go swh (in an of®cial capacity) order sth (to be supplied) ) order sb (where) instruct sb to come to see one (swh) sb (to do sth) command, order sb (to do sth) (esp. of abstract ideas) say sb (sth) (R3a) tell, bid sb (to do sth) order The government ordered the strikers to return to work. The minister has ordered the disaster to be investigated. The director instructed him to contact her immediately. He instructed the bank to close the account. He urged her to leave the room. I was asked to pay immediately. He was told to put everything away. He was told to watch the door. I have been assigned to prepare the conference. The lawyer is assigned to look after my interests. He was ordered to wait. The soldiers were ordered to blow the bridge. The general ordered the retreat. The admiral commands the naval formation. The colonel commanded the troops across the Volga. The diplomat was ordered to Ulan Bator. A traffic policeman was standing there and ordered him to the right. He ordered three place cards for the game on Sunday. I ordered a new blouse from the mail order company. She ordered a big brown one. The boss called me to his office at 8 o'clock. He had been called to the police. My conscience tells me to speak. This dictates our responsibility for the secure present and future of our people. She told him to stop. He told his troops to defend the castle to the last man. 22 command