When regions of the earth's surface sink downwards

Botany I & II

Most important substances for energy metabolism; primary product of photosynthesis: glucose; transported within plants as mono- or dimers; important storage substances; may form slimy protective layers around plant cells; build cell walls; together with lignine, wood is formed

Forms a double helix; one helix consists of two molecules connected by thousands of weak hydrogen bonds; it thus needs high temperature (> 90 * C) to separate the two strands; Its building blocks, the nucleotides, are also important to store energy for chemical reaction in a readily available form (especially ATP)

Rarely codes genetic information itself (only in some viruses); a slight difference (one additional OH group in the backbone) makes the molecule less stable; but it coveys protein codes as messenger (mRNA) and binds the amino acids for the transfer (tRNA) to the protein building blocks, the ribosomes

Have three structure levels: primary structure: the amino acid sequence, secondary structure: made by hydrogen bonds between amino acids, primary structure: folding of the peptide strands; two functions: catalyzing reactions (enzymes), building cell structures (structure proteins)

Separate different reaction rooms in a cell; these compartments are called organells; make the co-existence of different compounds with different features in one cell possible; cannot be easily penetrated by ions; and help thus to maintain the inner conditions of a cell; since biological membranes are usually not hold together by covalent bonds between the lipid molecules, they become unstable if their solvent, the water, is heated; this defines the upper temperature limit of life

Basic Compounds of Life; store energy, but not in an easy available form; with a polar / hydrophilic and an apolar / hydrophobic part; form biological membranes

"Sticky" molecules with hydrogen bonds: water is a liquid between 0 and 100 ° C, the temperature of active life, water has a high warmth capacity -> it needs a lot of energy to heat up-> it helps to keep temperature on earth stable; partial loads due to different electronegativity of O and H: water is a polar solvent, keeping all kinds of ions needed for enzymatic reactions, but expels non-polar compounds (no partial loads) like liquids, which cannot interact with water, keeping all membranes stable; optimum package of molecules = highest density at 4 ° C -> ice swims on water, and a lake starts not to frees from the ground: life can find shelter under the ice; water is the medium of life - we do not know life without water

Minimum size of pollen grains / plant cells

A pollen grain: DNA needs to be transported, minimum metabolism needs to be maintained; A plant cell: approx. 2000 genes as the minimum for autonomous metabolism, compartments (cell organells) needed for a complex metabolism

Maximum size of pollen grains / plant cells

A pollen grain: transportation to air or pollinating insect becomes increasingly difficult; A plant cell: supply of inner parts with all components necessary for metabolism becomes difficult, volume grows more than surface

Bacteria, Archaea; small cells; free genome; simple cell division; DNA in a single curricular chromosome

Various protists, metazoa, viridiplantae; larger cells; nucleus, chromosomes, mitochondria, plastides; mitosis; much more DNA in many linear chromosomes

Photoautotroph; flattened body to perceive light; sessile; large cells (vacuoles); cell wall; spores / pollen to disperse

Heterotroph (dissolved nutrients); filamentous growth to enlarge surface; extension growth (mycelia); large cells (vacuoles); cell wall; spores do disperse