Which means his shoulders are drooping

Climate Science Glossary

The argument of the skeptics

Show scientific evidence

1"Is there a contradiction between past climate change and human-made global warming?"The climate always reacts to the current drives. At the moment, people are the main drivers.2"Is the sun causing climate change?"In the last 35 years of global warming, solar activity and climate have developed in opposite directions.3"Positive and Negative Effects of Global Warming"

The negative effects of global warming on agriculture, health, the economy and the environment outweigh any benefits.

4"Is there a scientific consensus on climate change?"

It is the position of science academies from 19 countries and many other scientific organizations studying climate change that humans are causing global warming. More precisely, 97% of climate scientists who are currently publishing climate studies agree with this consensus.

5"Is global warming still happening?"

Empirical measurements of the earth's heat content show that the planet is still absorbing heat and that global warming is continuing. Surface temperatures can show a short-term cooling trend when heat is exchanged between the atmosphere and the ocean, since the ocean has a greater heat capacity than the air.

6"Models are unreliable"

Although there are uncertainties in climate models, they can successfully reproduce the past and have also made predictions that were later confirmed by observations.

7"Are the temperature measurements on the surface reliable?"

Numerous studies on the effect of urban heat islands and microsites show that they have a negligible influence on long-term trends, especially when they are averaged over large areas.

8"Can animals and plants adapt to climate change?"

A large number of previous mass extinctions have been clearly linked to global climate change. With today's climate change happening so quickly, the adaptation strategy that species normally pursue (e.g. migration) is simply not possible in most cases. The changes around the world are just too big and happening too quickly.

9"How has global warming changed since 1998?"All components of the climate system have warmed up further since 1998 and with 2014, 2015 and 2016 there were three warmest years in a row.10"Is Antarctica losing ice or is it increasing there?"

While the interior of eastern Antarctica is gaining land ice, the total land ice in Antarctica is decreasing at increasing speed. Antarctic sea ice is increasing even though the southern ocean is warming significantly.

11"Did scientists predict an impending ice age in the 1970s?"The predictions of an ice age in the 1970s were mainly in the media while the majority of scientific studies predicted warming.12"CO2 reacts to temperature - what does that mean?"

When the earth comes out of an ice age, the warming is not caused by CO2 but by changes in the earth's orbit. The oceans emit CO2 as a result of warming. The CO2 amplifies the warming and mixes in the atmosphere, causing the warming to spread across the planet. So CO2 causes warming AND higher temperatures cause an increase in CO2.

13"How sensitive is our climate?"

The sensitivity of the climate can be calculated empirically by comparing previous temperature changes with the natural drives of this time. Different periods of the earth's history were examined in this way and a clear agreement was found for a climate sensitivity of about 3 ° C.

14"Are we on the way to a new little ice age?"The radiative forcing caused by the increase in CO2 clearly exceeds the forcing caused by solar activity, even if solar activity were to fall to the level of the Maunder minimum.15"Ocean Acidification: The Evil Twin of Global Warming"

We know from the past that whenever CO2 has risen sharply, at the same time there was a mass extinction of coral reefs. The CO is currently increasing2-Concentration is increasing faster than ever before in known contemporary history. Seawater pH is expected to change faster in the 21st century than at any other time in the past 800,000 years. This will lead to conditions that have not existed on Earth for the past 40 million years.

16"Did the hockey stick break?"

Since the publication of the hockey racket study in 1998, several other investigations have been carried out with proxies using corals, stalagmites, tree rings, drill and ice cores. They all confirm the original hockey stick conclusion: that the 20th century was the warmest in 1,000 years and that post-1920 warming was most dramatic.

17"What do the CRU emails stolen in" Climategate "tell us?"

Even if some of the private correspondence is not exactly creditable, an expert examination of the allegedly ambiguous emails reveals that the discussions involved technical discussions using techniques well-known in peer-reviewed literature. Focusing on a few ambiguous emails only distracts from the plethora of empirical evidence for man-made global warming.

18"What is the connection between cyclones and global warming?"It is still unclear whether global warming increases the frequency of cyclones, but there is increasing evidence that warming contributes to more severe cyclones.19"Is Al Gore's" An Inconvenient Truth "correct?"

While there are minor errors in "An Inconvenient Truth," the essential content - namely, the evidence to show that humanity is causing global warming and its various effects - is consistent with the peer-reviewed science.

20"Are glaciers increasing or decreasing?"

While there have been a few reports of glaciers growing, the overwhelming trend in glaciers around the world is retreat. In fact, the global melting rate has accelerated since the mid-1970s.

21"Can cosmic rays cause global warming?"

While the relationship between cosmic rays and cloud cover has yet to be confirmed, and more importantly, there has been no correlation between cosmic rays and global temperature over the past 30 years.

22"1934 is the warmest year on temperature records"1934 was one of the warmest years in the US, but not worldwide.23"It is flipping cold!"

Since the mid-1970s, temperatures have risen by an average of 0.2 ° Celsius per decade. However, the weather is overshadowing the long-term trend with dramatic upward and downward swings. We can count on cold records even in times of global warming. Nonetheless, there have been twice as many daily highs compared to cold records in the past decade. This trend towards hotter days is expected to intensify as global warming progresses in the 21st century.

24"Is global warming causing weather extremes?"

There is growing empirical evidence that the warmer temperatures are causing more severe hurricanes, heavy rainfall and flooding, as well as increasing the conditions for bushfires and dangerous heat waves.

25"The sea level is (almost) not rising"

Sea level is measured using various methods - sediment drilling, tide levels, satellite measurements - and they all show a good match. What they show is that sea level rise has steadily accelerated over the past century.

26"Is the global warming trend too high due to the effect of urban heat islands?"

While urban areas are undoubtedly warmer than the surrounding rural areas, this has little or no impact on the warming trend.

27"How does the comparison between the warm period of the Middle Ages and the current global temperatures look like?"

Although there were unusually high temperatures in some regions during the Medieval Warm Period, the planet was colder on a global basis than it is now.

28"Global warming on Mars with melting polar caps"

The climate on Mars is largely determined by dust and albedo, and there is little empirical evidence of long-term warming.

29"The melting of the Arctic ice follows a natural cycle"Arctic sea ice has been decreasing over the past 30 years. The speed of retreat increases and even exceeds the calculations of most models.30"How do we know that more CO2 is causing warming?"

An intensifying greenhouse effect of CO2 has been confirmed by various empirical evidence. Satellite measurements of infrared spectra over the past 40 years show that less energy escapes into space in the wavelengths associated with CO2. Measurements on the earth's surface show increasing downward infrared radiation, which is heating the surface of the planet. This results in a direct, empirical causal relationship between CO2 and global warming.

31"Does the cooling of the oceans prove that global warming has stopped?"

Argo's first estimates of ocean heat content showed a cooling trend due to problems with the pressure sensor. More recent assessments of ocean heat, which take this trend into account, show persistent warming of the upper ocean layers. This is supported by independent calculations of the heat content of the oceans as well as by extensive measurements of the ocean heat up to a depth of 2000 meters.

32"Climate scientists could earn more money in other professions"Climate scientists could make a lot more money in other jobs - especially in the oil industry.33"It's just a natural cycle"

The 1500-year cycles called Dansgaard-Oeschger events can only be detected in the northern hemisphere and were each accompanied by a cooling in the southern hemisphere. In contrast, the current warming is taking place in both the northern and southern hemispheres and especially in the world's oceans, indicating a significant energy imbalance.

34"How do man-made CO2 emissions relate to natural CO2 emissions?"

The naturally released CO2 (from the oceans and vegetation) is in balance with natural absorption (again from the oceans and vegetation). This is why man-made emissions upset the natural balance and lead to a level of CO2 that has not existed in at least 800,000 years. The fact is that mankind releases 26 gigatons of CO2 annually and the CO2 content of the atmosphere only increases by 15 gigatons per year - a large part of human CO2 emissions is absorbed in natural carbon sinks.

35"Does the IPCC embody a scientific consensus?"

The leading authors of the IPCC are experts in their fields and they are tasked with properly reproducing the full range of current, peer-reviewed literature. Therefore, the IPCC reports are rather cautious in their conclusions. Comparisons with the latest data consistently show that climate change is happening faster and more intensely than shown in the IPCC forecasts.

36"Water vapor is the strongest greenhouse gas"Water vapor is the most common greenhouse gas. Water vapor also has a dominant positive feedback effect, amplifying any warming caused by atmospheric CO2 caused. This positive feedback is why the climate is so sensitive to warming from CO2 responds.37"The number of polar bears is increasing"

Although there are certain uncertainties in assessing the evolution of the polar bear population, one thing is certain: no sea ice means no seals, which then no longer means polar bears. The polar bear is in great danger of extinction due to the ever faster retreat of the Arctic sea ice.

38"What are the economic effects of a CO2 tax?"

Economic assessments of the proposed measures to levy a tax on carbon dioxide emissions largely agree that the net economic impact will be very small. Over the next few decades, the cost will be about $ 100 per average family, or about 75 cents per person per week and a reduction in gross domestic product of less than 1%.

39"Evidence for Global Warming"

There is multiple independent evidence of global warming. These include the accelerated loss of Arctic and Antarctic ice, as well as the global migration of animals and plants towards the poles.

40"Greenland used to be green"

The Greenland Ice has existed for at least 400,000 years. There may have been regions in Greenland that were "greener" than they are today, but this was not a global phenomenon.

41"CO2 is not a pollutant"

Although there are direct ways in which CO2 acts as a pollutant (acidification of the oceans), its main effect is the warming greenhouse effect. Although the greenhouse effect is a natural occurrence, too much warming has severe negative effects on agriculture, health and the environment.

42"Is the ice on Greenland increasing or decreasing?"

While the mass balance in the interior of Greenland is balanced, the coasts are losing ice. Overall, Greenland is losing its ice mass faster and faster. From 2002 to 2009, the rate of ice loss doubled.

43"CO2 is plant food"

The benefits of CO2 for plants are offset by negative effects from droughts, weeds and higher temperatures.

44"Empirical Evidence That Humans Are Causing Global Warming"

Direct observations show that CO2 increases sharply due to human activities. Measurements by satellites and on the surface show that in the wave ranges in which CO2 absorbs energy, less energy escapes into space. Temperature measurements in the oceans and on the surface show that the planet continues to absorb heat. This leads to empirical evidence that human CO2 emissions cause global warming.

45"Global warming on other planets in our solar system"There are three fundamental flaws in the "other planets are getting warmer" argument. First, not all planets in the solar system are getting warmer. Second, the sun has shown no discernible long-term trend since 1950 and has shown a cooling trend - if at all - in recent decades. And third, there are other explanations for why other planets are getting warmer.46"Is the Arctic sea ice back to normal?"

The extent of the sea ice only tells us something about the state of the sea surface, but not about what is going on below. The Arctic sea ice has become steadily thinner, even in the last few years when the extent has increased slightly. Accordingly, the total amount of Arctic sea ice in 2008 and 2009 was the lowest ever measured.

47"Is CO2 always related to temperature? And if not, why not?"

Even during a prolonged warming period, there are short cooling periods due to climate variability. The short-term cooling of the last few years is mainly due to a strong La Nina phase in the Pacific and an extended solar minimum.

48"What ended the Little Ice Age?"The main driver of warming from the Little Ice Age to 1940 has been the warming sun and a small contribution from volcanic activity. However, solar activity remained constant after 1940 and the net influence of the sun and volcanoes on the climate since 1940 showed a slight cooling trend. Greenhouse gases have been the main contributor to global warming since 1970.49"It was cooler in the middle of the last century"

There are numerous forces that influence the climate (e.g. aerosols in the stratosphere or fluctuations in solar activity). When all these forces are taken into account, they show a good correlation with global temperatures over the entire 20th century, including the cooling phase in the middle of the century. For the past 35 years, however, the main driver has been CO2.

50"Did global warming stop in 1998, 1995, 2002, 2007, 2010?"The dramatic slowdown in 2007 was caused by strong La Nina conditions, which had previously caused comparable decreases in global temperatures.The whole thing was reinforced by the unusually weak solar activity.51"Do high levels of CO2 in the past refute the warming effect of CO2?"When CO2 levels were higher in the past, solar levels were also lower. The combined effect of the sun and CO2 is well in line with the climate.52"Before 1940 it was warm when CO2 was low"The warming in the early 20th century was mainly due to an increase in solar activity and relatively low volcanic activity. However, both influencing factors have had little or no contribution to the warming since 1975. Solar activity has been constant since the 1950s. There were relatively frequent volcanic eruptions and they had a cooling effect, if at all.53"Satellites show little to no warming in the troposphere"With the exception of the tropics, satellite measurements agree with the results of the models. There is uncertainty about the data from the tropics because the different teams correct the satellites' drifting differently. The US Climate Change Science Program concludes that the inconsistencies are most likely due to data errors.54"They are aerosols"Global dimming turned around around 1990 - 15 years after the global warming trend began in the mid 1970s. 55"There were record periods of cold weather in the winter of 2009-2010"The cold snap is due to a strong phase of arctic oscillation. This causes cold temperatures in mid-latitudes (in Eurasia and North America) and warming in the polar regions (Greenland and the Arctic Ocean). The cold and warm areas cancel each other out and therefore have almost no influence on the global temperature.
56"Is it a natural cycle?"

A natural cycle needs a drive, and there is no known drive that would fingerprint the observed warming - with the exception of man-made greenhouse gases.

57"Global Warming and the Southern Oscillation El Nino"For a short period of time, the southern El Nino oscillation shows good correlation with global temperatures. However, it cannot explain the long-term warming trend over the past few decades.58"The human fingerprint in climate change"

The human fingerprint in climate change can be seen in many different empirical evidence - in satellite measurements of the escaping infrared rays, in measurements of the downward infrared rays on the earth's surface, in the cooling of the stratosphere and in other measurement data.

59"The loss of ice on Kilimanjaro is due to land use"Retreating the glacier on Kilimanjaro is complicated and not just caused by global warming. However, this does not mean that the earth is not warming up. There is ample evidence that the Earth's average temperature has increased over the past 100 years, and the decrease in glaciers at mid and high latitudes is one of the main pieces of evidence of this.60"There is no hotspot in the troposphere"Satellite measurements agree with the results of the models everywhere except in the tropics. There is uncertainty with the tropical data as different teams correct the satellites' drift differently. The U.S. Climate Change Science Program concludes that the discrepancy is most likely due to data errors.
61"It's the Pacific Decade Oscillation"

As an oscillation between positive and negative values, the PDO shows no long-term trend, while the temperature shows a long-term warming trend. When the PDO switched to a cold phase for the last time, global temperatures were approx. 0.4 ° C lower than today. The long-term warming trend is an indication that all energy in the earth's climate system is increasing due to an energy imbalance.

62"The greenhouse effect and the 2nd law of thermodynamics"The earth's atmosphere can absorb the short-wave radiation from the sun less than the thermal radiation from the surface. The effect of this mismatch is that the thermal radiation that escapes into space comes mainly from the cooler upper layers of the atmosphere, while the earth's surface remains at a significantly warmer temperature. This is called the "atmospheric greenhouse effect" and without it the earth's surface would be much colder.63"The difference between weather and climate"

Since the weather is a chaotic system, predictions are difficult. In the case of the climate, however, the long-term trend is looked at and the weather is averaged over the period. This removes the chaotic element and allows the climate models to successfully predict future climate change.

64"Himalayan Glaciers: How the IPPC Was Wrong and What Science Says"

The IPCC's mistake in forecasting 2035 was unfortunate and it is important that such errors be avoided in future publications through closer scrutiny. The central information of the AR4 of the IPCC is, however, confirmed by the reviewed literature. The Himalayan glaciers are vital as they provide drinking water for half a billion people. Measurements from satellites and on-site show that the Himalayan glaciers are disappearing with increasing speed.

65"The greenhouse effect is invented"The earth's atmosphere can absorb the short-wave radiation of the sun less than the thermal radiation of the earth's surface. The effect of this imbalance is that the thermal radiation that escapes into space comes mainly from the upper cooler layers of the atmosphere, while the earth's surface levels off in a significantly warmer temperature state. This is called the "atmospheric greenhouse effect" and without it the earth's surface would be much colder.66"How are the poor affected by climate change?"

Those who contribute the least to greenhouse gases will be most affected by climate change.

67"What is the net feedback caused by clouds?"The feedback from clouds is still one of the greatest remaining uncertainties in climate science. However, the evidence that the net feedback from clouds will be more likely to be positive and that it is very unlikely to be highly negative is increasing.68"Has science committed itself?"Science is never 100% decided - science is about minimizing uncertainties. Different areas of science are understood with different degrees of determination. We understand z. B. the effect of aerosols less while we understand the warming effect of carbon dioxide much better. Less well understood aspects of climate change do not change the fact that a large part of climate science is well understood.69"How much will sea levels rise in the 21st century?"In fact, the observed sea level rise is in the upper ranges of the IPCC predictions. If the accelerating loss of Greenland and Antarctic ice is taken into account in the sea level forecasts, the estimated sea level rise by the year 2100 is between 75 cm and 2 meters.70"It's the oceans"

The seas are getting warmer all over the world. Globally, the oceans actually store energy at a rate of 4 x 1021 Joules per year - which corresponds to a number of 127,000 nuclear reactors (each with an average capacity of 1 gigawatt) that let their energy flow directly into the sea. This shows us that the planet is in an energy imbalance - more energy is coming in than radiating back into space.

71"Comparison between the statements of the IPCC and the reviewed literature on the Amazon rainforest"The IPCC statement on the Amazon rainforest is correct. The error was an incorrect reference that neglected to mention the peer-reviewed study from which the data came. The peer-reviewed science prior to the publication of the 2007 IPCC report mentioned that up to 40% of Brazilian forests are prone to drought. Later field research has confirmed this assessment.
72"How Global Warming Is Driving Coral Bleaching"The coral reefs are decreasing worldwide. In the past 30 to 40 years, 80% of the corals in the Caribbean and 50% in Indonesia and the Pacific have been destroyed. The coral bleaching associated with the El Niño of 1982/83 killed over 95% of the corals around the Galapagos Islands and the El Niño of 1997/98 alone destroyed 16% of all corals on our planet. Globally, around 1% of corals die off every year.73"Do volcanoes emit more CO2 than humanity?"

Volcanoes emit around 0.3 billion tons of CO2 per year. This is around 1% of man-made CO2Emissions, which are around 29 billion tons per year.

74"Is the CO2 effect saturated?"If the CO2 effect were saturated, the addition of more CO2 should not cause an additional greenhouse effect. Satellite and surface measurements, however, show an increased greenhouse effect at the wavelengths at which CO2 absorbs energy. This is empirical evidence that the CO2 effect is not saturated.75"The Greenland Ice Sheet will not collapse"Gravitational measurements from satellites show that Greenland is losing ice mass with increasing speed. This also increases its contribution to sea level rise.76"CO2 is just a trace gas"

Small amounts of very active substances can have great effects.

77"Are 500 Scientists Contesting Consensus?"A close look at these studies, which purportedly refute man-made global warming, shows that many of these articles do nothing of the sort. The few studies that claim to disprove man-made global warming simply represent clearly exposed falsehoods.78"What is methane contributing to global warming?"Although methane is a stronger greenhouse gas than CO2, there is over 200 times more CO2 in the atmosphere. Therefore, the proportion that methane contributes to warming is 28% of the proportion of CO2.79"CO2 has a short dwell time"Individual carbon dioxide molecules have a short lifespan of around 5 years in the atmosphere. When they leave the atmosphere, however, they only trade places with carbon dioxide in the world's oceans. The final amount of additional CO2 that remains in the atmosphere will remain there for centuries.80"What is the complete evidence for the humidity?"To claim that humidity is decreasing implies ignoring the multiple independent re-analyzes, all of which show an increase in humidity. It assumes that you accept a flawed reanalysis, which according to the statements of its own authors should be treated with caution. It fails to explain how we can have short-term positive feedback and long-term negative feedback. In short: to insist that the humidity is decreasing is only possible if you ignore all of the evidence.81"How reliable are the CO2 readings?"CO2 values ​​are measured by hundreds of stations - spread over 66 countries - and they all show the same increasing trend.82"How does climate change affect the earlier onset of spring?"

An evaluation of nearly 400,000 records of the earliest flowering times of 405 species in Britain showed that British plants are now blooming earlier than ever in the last 250 years.

83"Neptune Warms Up"It takes 164 years to orbit Neptune around the sun, which is why our observations (from 1950 to today) make up less than a third of a Neptune year. Climate models suggest that Neptune's brightening is seasonal. It could be used as e.g. E.g. that summer is just beginning for Neptune's southern hemisphere.84"Global Warming on Jupiter"Climate change on Jupiter is due to shifts in internal turbulence driven by an internal heat source - the planet emits twice as much energy as it receives from the sun.85"What is Mike's Nature Trick to 'Disguise Approval'?""Mike's Nature Trick" refers to the technique of displaying the more recent instrument-measured data along with reconstructed data. This relates the current global warming trends to temperature changes over long periods of time. "Hide the decrease" refers to the decrease in the reliability of tree rings after 1960 to display temperatures. This is known as the "deviation problem" in which tree ring approximations deviate from modern measured temperature values ​​after 1960, as discussed in the scientifically reviewed literature as early as 1995. 86"Is the CO2 level increasing?"

We humans currently release around 29 billion tons of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere every year. About 43% of this remains in the atmosphere - what is known as the "portion in the air". The rest is taken up by the vegetation and the oceans. While there are questions about how much the "proportion in the air" increases, it is clear that the total amount of CO2 in the atmosphere is increasing dramatically. The current level of CO2 is the highest in 15 million years.

87"It's up to the land use"Interrelationships between warming and economic activity are most likely misleading. They do not take into account local influencing factors such as tropospheric ozone or black carbon. Matches are likely to be overrated because grids are not independent for both economic and climatic data. There is also significant independent evidence of ocean warming, snow cover, and changes in sea ice cover. 88"Do record snowfalls refute climate change?"

To claim that record snowfalls are inconsistent with a warming world is only evidence of a lack of understanding of the link between global warming and extreme precipitation. Warming leads to increased humidity, which then leads to more extreme precipitation events. This also includes the increased occurrence of strong snowstorms in regions with favorable conditions for snowfall. Record snowfalls are anything but a refutation of global warming. They are even predicted by climate models and match our expectations of more extreme precipitation events.

89"They changed the name from global warming to climate change"There have long been claims that unspecified "they" would have "changed" the name from "global warming" to "climate change". In reality, the two terms refer to different things and have both been used for decades. The only individual who advocated changing the name accordingly is a global warming skeptic.90"What does the duration of a solar cycle tell us about the role of the sun in global warming?"The claim that the length of solar cycles proves that global warming is sun-driven is based on a single study published in 1991. Later research, including a study by a co-author of the original 1991 study, comes to the opposite conclusion. The length of the solar cycle as a proxy for solar activity shows us that the sun has contributed very little to global warming since 1975.
91"The CO2 comes from the oceans"The measurements of carbon isotopes and decreasing oxygen in the atmosphere show that the increasing carbon dioxide content is due to the burning of fossil fuels and cannot come from the oceans.92"CO2 is not the only driver for the climate"

While there are many forcing for the climate, CO2 is the most dominant radiative forcing and it is increasing faster than any other forcing.

93"Climategate and the technical assessment process"The Independent Climate Change Email Review examined the actions of the CRU scientists in relation to the peer review. In one case, the revision concluded that the violent response to a controversial study was not unusual. In another case, the alleged victim was found to have spread malicious rumors about the CRU. In a third case, the allegation that there had been collusion collapsed as soon as all of the email correspondence was evaluated. The audit concluded that the actions of the CRU were normal and that they did not threaten the integrity of the expert opinion.94"The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) overestimates the rise in temperature"Lord Monckton picked one equation from the IPCC report, then used it inappropriately, and then passed his results on to the IPCC. This can be compared to this: I borrow your car, drive it into a tree and blame you. He uses a method that is clearly intended for studying the long-term effects of changes in carbon dioxide on temperatures. This method is never used by the IPCC for predicting current temperature developments (and of course it should not be). A small correction of July 2010 in Lord Monckton's methodology does not change the fact that his method or the manner of attribution was inappropriate.95"Pluto is getting warmer"The climate change on Pluto over the past 14 years is likely to be seasonal. Due to its elliptical orbit (for which it takes 250 earth years) Pluto experiences drastic seasonal changes. Any warming on Pluto cannot be caused by solar variation, as the Sun has shown little to no long-term trend over the past 50 years. In addition, solar radiation on Pluto is 900 times less than on Earth.96"CO2 limits will not do much"

It is true that the reduction in CO2- Emissions from a single country will have little impact. However, we can only achieve decisive savings worldwide if every country is willing to reduce its CO2-Restricting emissions.

97"Renewable energies are too expensive"

When you factor in impacts such as air pollution and health that are not included in the retail price of fossil fuels, the real cost of coal and other fossil fuels is higher than the cost of most renewables.

98"It was warmer in the Arctic in 1940"

It seems that Monckton has picked out the temperature data from a few stations. The complete data for latitudes 64-90 ° N shows that the Arctic is warmer today than it was in 1940.

99"Why is the southern sea ice increasing?"The Antarctic sea ice has expanded in recent decades, but this is certainly not due to cooling - the southern ocean has shown warming over the same period. The increasing southern sea ice is due to a combination of complex phenomena. These include cyclonic winds around Antarctica and changes in ocean circulation.
100"Is sea level rise accelerating?"

Looking at global data (instead of just tidal measurements from the USA), it becomes apparent that sea level rise has accelerated since 1880. The recent rate of sea level rise is greater than its average since 1930. Predictions for future sea level rise are based on physics, not statistics.

101"Are people too insignificant to influence the climate?"

The amount of CO2 in the atmosphere is increasing by 15 gigatons per year. Humanity emits 26 gigatons of CO2 into the atmosphere. Humans are changing the composition of our climate dramatically.

102"There are microsite influences"Comparative data analyzes of the temperature trends of badly placed weather stations with those of well placed stations show that the bad locations actually show a tendency to cool down compared to good locations. The cooling tendency is due to a change to the maximum / minimum temperature system, which occurs more frequently in poor locations. Once the change in instrument distortion is taken into account, there is little difference between the trends of poorly placed and well placed weather stations.103"Determine the climate sensitivity from satellite measurements"

Lindzen's analysis has several weaknesses such as: B. the fact that it only takes into account data from the tropics. Several independent studies using satellite data from almost all of the globe found positive feedback and high climate sensitivity.

104"Phil Jones Says There Has Been No Global Warming Since 1995"If you read Phil Jones' actual words, you will find that he says there is a warming trend, but that it is not statistically significant. He's not talking about whether the warming is actually happening. It discusses our ability to identify the warming trend in a noisy signal over a short period of time.105"Why are there fewer weather stations and what are the effects?"A comparison between the temperature developments of the deleted and retained stations shows that the discontinued stations actually show a slightly warmer trend than the retained stations. The reduction in the number of weather stations (due to the fact that fewer stations were available) has even introduced a slightly cooling trend, although the difference has been negligible since 1970.106"Can we get global warming under control?"

The argument that it is "too difficult" to solve global warming by reducing man-made greenhouse gas emissions usually stems from these beliefs: (i) Our technologies are not mature enough in order to achieve sufficient emissions savings and / or (ii) appropriate actions would ruin the world economy. Studies have shown, however, that the technologies that are already in place are suitable for reducing greenhouse gas emissions sufficiently and that this can also be done without serious effects on the economy.

107"Why do we urgently need to do something about climate change?"