Howitzer fires tables of artillery

Cannon: the types and range of fire. Overview of artillery shells from ancient times to modern times

Do you know what kind of troops are respectfully called "God of War"? Artillery, of course! Despite the development of missiles over the past fifty years, the role of modern high-precision barrel systems has remained extremely high.


History of development

"Father" is considered to be the German guns Schwartz, but many historians agree that his merits in this matter are rather dubious. Thus, the first mention of the use of conventional artillery on the battlefield belongs to 1354, but there are many papers in the archives that mention 1324.

There is no reason to believe that some artillery piece has not been used before. By the way of speaking, most mentions of such weapons are found in old English manuscripts, and certainly not in the primary German sources. Thus, particularly noteworthy in this regard, is quite a well-known treatise "On the Duties of Kings", written in honor of Edward III.

The author was a teacher to the king, and the book was written in 1326 (the time of Edward the murder). In the text there is no detailed explanation of the printouts, and therefore only have to rely on a subtext. So, shown on one of the pictures, beyond any doubt, it is a real weapon that resembles a large vase. Shows how from the mouth of the "jug" big boom undresses, wrapped in a cloud of smoke and the distance stands a knight, only podzhegshy powder used a hot rod.

first appearance

As for China, who probably invented the powder (a medieval alchemist discovered it about three times, no less), there is every reason that the first artillery could even experience before the Christian era to take over. Put simply, artillery, like all firearms, is certainly much older than previously thought.

In the age of Charles the Bold, these tools were used in large quantities during the siege of fortresses, the walls of which were already so effective against the besieged.

chronic stagnation

So why not win the whole world to ancient peoples with the help of “God of War”? It's simple - the early 14th century cannon. and 18 in. They differ little from each other. They were clumsy, too heavy, and had very poor accuracy. No wonder the first tools to break the walls (hard to miss!), As well as for shooting large concentrations of enemy. At a time when enemy armies were walking them with colorful pillars, it also does not require high precision weapons.

Don't forget about the disgusting nature of gunpowder, as well as its unpredictable properties: during Sweden sometimes Russian gunners war three times the rate of binding to the core coated enemy fortress had to increase at least some damage. Of course, on the guns reliability of this fact openly reflects poorly. There have been many occasions when the calculation of the artillery in the high arms generally had no other choice.

other causes

Finally, metallurgy. As is the case with locomotives, only the invention of rolling mills and in-depth research in the field of metallurgy provide the knowledge necessary to produce truly reliable logs. The creation of artillery shells for a long time provided the troops with "monarchical" privileges on the battlefield.

Do not forget caliber artillery In those years, they were calculated as used based on the diameter of the core, and in terms of the parameters of the hull. He reigned incredible confusion, and because the army just couldn't take something really uniform. All of this seriously hinders the development of the industry.

The main varieties of the ancient artillery systems

Now the main types of artillery, which in many cases really helped, consider changing history in order to break the tide of war in favor of a single state. By 1620 it was decided to distinguish the following types of instruments:

  • 7 to 12 inch caliber rifle.
  • Perrier.
  • Falcon and minions ("Falcon").
  • Hand tools from the shutter loader.
  • Robinety.
  • Mortar and bombed.

This list only shows “true” cannons in a more or less modern sense. But at that time the army was relatively many old cast iron cannons. The most typical representatives of it are kulevriny and polukulevriny. At that time it became clear that the huge cannon, which was highly common in earlier times, is worthless: the accuracy of its disgusting origin, the risk of explosion is extremely great, and the time it takes to refuel a lot.

Again referring to the times of Peter the historian of those years has stated that for each battery “unicorns” (art kulevriny) required hundreds of liters of vinegar. Its diluted in water as used for cooling overheated from the launch tube.

Rarely did an old artillery piece hit a caliber greater than 12 inches. Most often used kulevriny whose core weighed about 16 pounds (about 7.3 kg). Under field conditions, falsconets were quite common, the core of which weighed only 2.5 lbs (about kilograms). And now, let's look at types of guns that were common in the past.

Name of weapons

Barrel length (in calibers)

Projectile weight, kg

Est effective shooting distance (in meters)

musket

There is no set standard

0,45

50-75

Falcon

30

1,36

70-100

Sacra

28

4-5,4

about 400

"Asp"

20-25

4-5,4

1000-1067

Standard pistol

17-21

9-45,4

until 1300

Polupushka

There is no set standard

13.6

Up to 200

Kulevriny (older artillery gun with a long barrel)

33

9-22,7

230-250

"A half" kulevriny

32

5,4-13,6

150-170

serpentine

not specified

24

over 300

bastard

not specified

18.6

400-700

Kamnemet

9-45,4

900-1000

If you've carefully seen the table and saw a gun, don't be surprised. so called, not just clumsy and heavy artillery, which we remember from the films about the musketeers, but also a full artillery cannon with a long, small-caliber barrel. After all, imagine a "ball" weighing 400 grams is very problematic!

Also do not be surprised to submit kamnemetu in the list. The fact is that, for example, in the times of Peter's revenge, the Turks used pipe artillery to shoot cores, carved from stone. They are much less likely to break through right through the enemy ships, but often cause serious damage to the latter with the first volley.

Finally, all the data presented in our table - approximately. Many types of artillery are forgotten forever, and ancient historians are often not well versed in the properties and names of those weapons that were used in large quantities during the sieges of cities and fortresses.

Innovators inventors

As we have said, cannon artillery for many centuries was a weapon that, it seemed, was forever frozen in its development. Yet things changed quickly. As in many cases, the innovations in military affairs, the idea belonged to the officers of the fleet.

The main problem of conventional artillery on the ships was a severe space constraint, the complexity of all maneuvers to perform. If you see all of this, Mr. Melville and Mr. Gascoigne, who was in charge of production with him, managed to create a wonderful weapon that historians now know as the "karonada". It didn't have pins on its trunk (for the mast ties). But there was a little eye that a steel rod can be inserted into quickly and easily. He clung tightly to compact artillery machines.

The gun put out the light and short, easy to use. The effective shooting distance of this was about 50 meters. In addition, due to some of its construction, it has the ability to carry projectiles fire with Molotov cocktails. “Karonada” became so popular that the Gascoigne soon moved to Russia, where talented artists of foreign origin have always waited, received the rank of general and the position of one of Katharina's advisors. It was over the years that Russian artillery pieces were developed and manufactured on a scale never seen before.

Modern artillery systems

As we noted at the beginning of this article, in the modern world artillery had several "give way" under the influence of missiles. That doesn't mean, however, that conventional and missile systems are no longer left on the battlefield. Not even close! The invention of precision-guided missiles on GPS / GLONASS can confidently claim that the "natives" from the distant 12-13 centuries will continue to keep the enemy at bay.

Conventional and rocket artillery: who is better?

In contrast to conventional barrel rocket volley systems, installation gives virtually no tangible output. This is what distinguishes them from any self-propelled or rifled pistols, which, securely fastened to the firing position, bring the maximum required in the process and dig around on the ground, otherwise it can even capsize. Of course, any rapid change in position is fundamentally out of the question, even if the self-propelled artillery gun.

Reactive systems are fast and mobile, can change their combat position for a few minutes. In principle, these machines can also be triggered when driving, but the accuracy of the shot is severely affected. The disadvantage of such systems - in their poor accuracy. The same "hurricane" can literally plow a few square kilometers destroying almost all living things, but it will take a whole battery of not-cheap clams. These guns, photos of which you can find in the article, especially popular with domestic developers ("Katyusha").

A howitzer volley with an "intelligent" projectile capable of destroying any modern tank with one attempt, while the battery rocket launcher and may require more than one volley. In addition, the "tornado", "hurricane", "grad" and "tornado" will not be able to recognize in the early days, unless a blind soldier can be recognized as a cloud of smoke formed at the spot. But with such facilities in one projectile can contain up to several hundred kilograms of explosives.

Cannon artillery, because of its accuracy, can be used to bomb the enemy at the time of its location near their same positions. In addition, self-propelled barrel artillery can really perform against battery fire, making it for many hours. In salvo fire systems tend to break quickly into trunks that do not contribute to their long-term use.

By the way of speaking, "degree" used in the first Chechnya campaign that led to the war in Afghanistan. Carrying trunks are such that the shells sometimes flew in unpredictable directions. This often leads to a "cover" for their own soldiers.

The best systems of volley fire

The leaders inevitably come artillery Russia "Tornado". They shoot projectiles with a caliber of 122 mm at a distance of 100 kilometers. Up to 40 charges can be dispensed in one volley, covering an area of ​​84,000 square meters. Cruising is nothing more and nothing less - 650 kilometers. Coupled with a high reliability chassis and a movement speed of 60 km / h, the battery “Tornado” can be transferred to the right place and in the shortest possible time.

The second is the effectiveness of the domestic MLRS 9K51 “Grad”, notorious after the events in southeast Ukraine. Caliber - 122 mm, 40 stems. Fires at a distance of up to 21 kilometers in a single pass "cope with" on an area of ​​40 square kilometers. Cruising at a top speed of 85 km / h is as much as 1500 kilometers!

Third place goes to HIMARS cannon from the American manufacturer. Ammunition has an impressive caliber of 227 mm, but only six guide a few spoil the impression of the facility. Firing range - up to 85 kilometers at a time, an area of ​​67 square kilometers. The speed of movement - up to 85 km / h and a range of 600 kilometers. Well established campaign in Afghanistan.

In fourth position is the Chinese plant WS-1B. Chinese will not be detailed: the caliber of the deterrent weapon is 320 mm. In appearance, this MRL is similar to the S-300 made in Russia and has only four barrels. Range is about 100 kilometers, striking area - up to 45 square kilometers. With a top speed this modern artillery has a range of about 600 kilometers.

In last place is the Indian MLRS Pinaka. The design - 12 guides 122mm grenades. Shooting range - up to 40 km. With a top speed of 80 km / h the car can travel up to 850 kilometers. Near zone - as much as 130 square kilometers. The system was developed with the direct participation of Russian specialists and has proven itself excellently in numerous Indo-Pakistani conflicts.

gun

This weapon is far removed from its ancient predecessor, which excluded fields in the Middle Ages. Caliber weapons used in the present conditions range from 100 (anti-cannon "Rapier") to 155 mm (TR, NATO).

Assortment of shells used as extremely broad: from standard high-explosive shots to programmable projectiles that can hit a target at a distance of 45 kilometers with an accuracy of ten centimeters. However, the cost of one of the recordings can reach 55 thousand dollars! In this regard, the Soviet artillery is much cheaper.

Surname

Country of Manufacture

Caliber, mm

Guns weight kg

Maximum range (depending on the type of bullet), km

GHN-45

Belgium

155

8900

30-39

GC 45

Belgium

155

8222

30-39

BL 5.5 inches (almost everywhere out of order)

England

140

5851

16.5

"Zsolt" M-68 / M-71

Israel

155

9500

21

WA 021 (actual Belgian GC clone 45)

China

155

9500

30-39

M-46

USSR

130

8450

27

2A36 "Hyacinth-B"

USSR

152

9800

27

"Rapier"

USSR

100

2800

3

Soviet artillery C-23

USSR

180

21450

30.5

D-20

USSR

152

5700

17-24

"Octopus-B"

Russia

125

6575

12.2

G5

South Africa

155

13500

30

mortar

Modern mortar systems are derived from the old bombed and mortars that could release a bomb (weighing up to hundreds of kilograms) at a distance of 200-300 meters. Today significantly changed their design and the maximum range of applications.

In the majority of the armed forces in the world fighting for mortar teaching regards them as cannons mounted for firing at a distance of about a kilometer. He notes the effectiveness of using this weapon in an urban setting and in the suppression of stray, mobile enemy groups. In the Russian army mortars are standard weapons, they are used in every little serious military operation.

And during the Ukrainian case, both sides showed that older 88mm mortars are excellent tools for guerrilla warfare, and counteracting it.

Modern mortars, as well as other cannon artillery, are evolving to increase the accuracy of each shot. In the summer of last year, the famous armory corporation BAE Systems first demonstrated to the international community precision mortar shells 81 mm caliber, which were tested in one of the British landfills. It is reported that such ammunition can be used with the greatest possible efficiency in the temperature range from -46 to +71 ° C. In addition, there is information about the planned production of the widest range of projectiles.

Hopes the military that with the development of high-precision min 120mm with increased performance. The new models developed for the US Army (XM395, for example), at a range of up to 6.1 km, a deviation of no more than 10 meters. The Stryker crews of armored vehicles are reported to be firing in Iraq and Afghanistan, where the new ammunition was showing its best behavior.

But the most promising so far are the development of guided missiles with active homing. the domestic large cannons "Nona" can use a shell "Kitolov-2" So, with which you can hit at a distance of nine kilometers, practically any modern tank is. Given the cheapness of the tools, as expected development interest of the military around the world.

Thus, artillery is and today a formidable argument on the battlefield. is constantly developing new models and existing barrel systems are producing promising clams.